Grant TypePost PhD Research Grant
Institutional AffiliationNorth Carolina, Chapel Hill, U. of
Grant numberGr. 9952
Approve DateOctober 24, 2019
Project TitleMiddleton, Townsend (North Carolina, Chapel Hill, U. of) "Quinine's Remains: The Lives and Afterlives of a World-Historical Substance"
TOWNSEND MIDDLETON, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, was awarded funding in October 2019 to aid research on “Quinine’s Remains: The Lives and Afterlives of a World-Historical Substance.” Quinine is an alkaloid that shaped human history: a world-historical substance. Derived from cinchona, the fabled ‘fever tree’, quinine was for centuries malaria’s only cure — and as such, an instrument of empire. In British India, quinine was vital to colonial health and power. But the alkaloid has left behind uncertainty for those who made it in the Darjeeling Hills. With the global pharmaceutical market dominated by synthetic antimalarials and better quinines from Africa, there is no longer demand for Indian quinine. Government cinchona plantations first established by the British, however, still exist — albeit in a dilapidated state. What is to become of this once vital industry — and the 50,000 people who inhabit its remains—is unclear. These places and people are now in an urgent struggle to redefine quinine’s remains for the 21st century. Combining historical and ethnographic methods, this study tracked quinine from the heydays of colonial medicine to the precarities of India’s cinchona plantations today. The research asked fundamentally: how do human beings make history with plants, chemicals, and other world-historical substances? And crucially also, what do we make of life after they run their course?