Munoz Arbelaez, Santiago, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'The New Kingdom of Granada: The Making and Unmaking of Spain's Atlantic Empire, 1530-1650,' supervised by Dr. Stuart B. Schwartz
Preliminary abstract: My project examines the Spanish empire's project to create a centralized 'kingdom,' a political configuration they called the New Kingdom of Granada, amidst the variety of native groups and fractured geographies of present-day Colombia. Unlike Peru or Mexico, where the Spanish empire co-opted indigenous states, in this area decentralization posed specific challenges to colonial officials. How did the New Kingdom of Granada bring together such diverse peoples and areas? My study is a spatial history of the making and unmaking of the Spanish empire. I ask how colonial administrators tried to create landscapes of rule and how native peoples used space both to contest and to accommodate colonialism into their lives, or to flee and create spaces of refuge outside the Spanish area of influence. By drawing insights from ethnohistory and scholarship on state formation, I will argue that to extend the empire's tentacles to new groups and zones, colonial officials tried to standardize peoples and spaces of South America to make them legible for state rule, but they were also forced to mold their own domination strategies and to negotiate the meaning and scope of rule. This process produced a malleable political configuration that found ways to accommodate within it diverse groups of people and whose possibilities and constrains were defined on the ground in relation to the specific characteristics of native groups and landscapes. I examine this new spatial and political formation through the rubric 'ethnohistory of empire:' a dual concept that aims to show how the imperial state molded its institutions to fit local ethnic groups and how colonial institutions provided the conditions for the emergence of new ethnic groups both from within and from without imperial rule.
de la Cadena, Dr. Marisol, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way'
DR. MARISOL DE LA CADENA, University of California, Davis, California, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Alternative Archives: Understanding Indigenous Politics the Andean Way.' The grantee interrogates the relationship between indigeneity and 'politics' and, more specifically, the epistemic maneuver through which the power to decide what and who counts as its objects and subjects was invented. The study draws inspiration from Mariano Turpo and his son, Nazario -- two politicians/ritual specialists with whom the grantee started ethnographic conversations in January 2002. Mariano, in conventional terms an illiterate and monolingual Quechua-speaker, was close to 100 years old when he died in April 2004. Back in the 1970s he had successfully organized a local movement to recover lands that had once belonged to his community, Pacchanta, a small hamlet located in the Andean sierras at 14,000 feet above sea level and a 14-hour drive from the city of Cuzco in Peru. Physically distant from national centers, Pacchanta is a place barely imagined by central Peruvian politicians. However, during his heyday as an organizer, Mariano was frequently visited by revolutionary leftists, who were frustrated at his refusal to abandon shamanism and had discarded him as a politician -- yet maintained him as an ally, instrumental in organizing local opposition to landowners. Today, Euro-American New Age healers guided by national and international travel agencies based in Cuzco, flock to Pacchanta every Northern summer seeking Mariano's (and now his son Nazario's) 'shamanic wisdom' -- yet they ignore the ways this practice affects the material world that surrounds Pacchanta, and makes politicians out of these ritual specialists. At this intriguing crossroads, the research studies: 1) local indigenous political practices that integrate nature and culture, secular, and sacred spheres; and 2) the exclusions (and inclusions) enacted on indigenous politics, nationally and globally, through notions of secularized politics and spiritualized ritual.
Franzen, Margaret, U. of California, Davis, CA - To aid research on 'Intra-Community Food Sharing and Extra-Community Trading in Two Huaorani Communities in Ecuador,' supervised by Dr. Monique B. Mulder
Grimson, Dr. Alejandro, U. Nacional de San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid 'VIII Reunión de Antropología del MERCOSUR: Diversity and Power in Latin America,' 2009, Buenos Aires, in collaboration with Axel Lazzari
'8th Meeting of Anthropology of the Mercosur'
September 29 - October 2, 2009, Buenos Aire, Argentina
Organizers: Alejandro Grimson and Axel Lazzari (Universidad Nacional de San Martín)
'Diversity and Power in Latin America' was the theme for this 8th Meeting of Anthropology of the Mercorsur. Hosted by the Instituto de Altos Estudios Sociales (IDEAS) at the National University of San Martin in Bueons Aires, more than 3,000
researchers and graduate students from across Latin America, North America, and Europe gathered to participate in 30 special sessions, 75 working groups, and 14 forums, making this the largest meeting of Anthropology in the Mercosur to date A photographic exhibition, 35 ethnographic films, and a special session on the uses of photography and video in anthropological research were included among many other activities.
James, Carwil Robert, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Claiming Space, Redefining Politics: Urban Protest and Grassroots Power in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
CARWIL R. JAMES, then a student at the City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Claiming Space, Redefining Politics: urban Protest and Grassroots Power in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman. This dissertation analyzes the role of space-claiming protests by primarily indigenous-identified social movements in Bolivia's current political transformation. Participatory fieldwork, oral history taking, and documentary research undergird a rich historical examination of the politics urban spaces in Sucre and Cochabamba, two politically active, multiracial cities with contrasting histories of indigenous-mestizo relations. Space claiming includes protests that physically control or symbolically claim urban space through occupations of plazas and roads, sit-ins, and blockades; as well as the use, re-appropriation, and redesigning of state spaces, as authorized by the post-2006 government. This dissertation argues that social movements' appropriation of Bolivia's central physical, political, and symbolic spaces both justifies and embodies the political changes they demand. In particular, indigenous movements have sought to claim the right to enter and direct politics from the central urban spaces that once excluded them, provoking literal and figurative battles over ownership of the city and its streets. The research shows that space-claiming practices function as: 1) a tool for achieving political change in Bolivia; 2) a model for the relationship between state and society; and 3) a central element in ongoing political conflicts.
Blair, James Joseph Allen, City U. of New York, Hunter College, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Extracting Indigeneity: Self-Determination and Energy in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas),' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
This ethnographic and historical project examines how the British settlers of the Falkland Islands (In Spanish, Malvinas) are constructing themselves as natives, as they stake their claim to energy resources. Thirty years after the 1982 military conflict that cemented the South Atlantic archipelago's British status, oil has been discovered near the islands, and Argentina has renewed its sovereignty claim. In response, the islands' settlers held a March 2013 referendum on the right to self-determination in which 99.8% voted 'Yes' to remaining British. Unlike colonies where native peoples have claimed self-determination to restore sovereignty, no precolonial population inhabited the islands, nor do descendants today. To understand how the settlers are reinventing themselves as natives with resource rights, this project examines: (1) how they are packaging self-determination as a sign of stability for oil partners; (2) to what extents debates around infrastructure are forming new local power relations; and (3) how the dispute orients experts assessing environmental impact. Research incorporates observations and interviews with multiple stakeholders, including: government officials, oil executives, scientists, migrants, townspeople and shepherds. With analysis of colonial reports, the project considers how the present moment of oil development is an outcome of historical relations of resource governance.
Sora, Dr. Gustavo Alejandro, National U., Cordoba, Argentina - To aid 'X Reunion de Antropología del Mercosur,' 2013, National U. of Cordoba
'Xth Reunión de Antropología del MERCOSUR (X RAM 2013)'
July 10-13, 2013, Córdoba, Argentina
Organizer: Dr. Gustavo A. Sorá (U. Nacional de Córdoba)
This biannual scientific meeting, originally promoted by the Brazilian Association of Anthropology (ABA), has been taking place since 1995. Organized by anthropologists and social scientists from universities and scientific institutions of MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Venezuela, Bolivia and Chile), the RAM promotes the participation of researchers from member countries, as well as universities and institutions of the international scientific community. The 2013 event was organized by the Department of Anthropology at the National University of Córdoba with the theme: 'Place, Act, and Imagine: Anthropologies from the South,' hosted eighty working groups, twenty-two round tables, forums for discussion between different organizations, actors, and social movements, as well as posters, short audiovisual presentations, and publications and books fair on various anthropological topics showcasing over 1200 authors and exhibitors. All told, the meeting attracted nearly 2000 scholars from home and abroad, with over 700 non-presenters attending sessions and program events.