Kilpatrick, Dr. Alan, San Diego, CA - To aid preparation of the personal research materials of Jack Frederick Kilpatrick and Anna Gritts Kilpatrick for archival deposit with the Hunter Library at Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC
Shimmin, Jessica Ann, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'A Safe Place: Gender, Safety, and Place Making in a Shelter for Battered Women,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
JESSICA SHIMMIN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'A Safe Place: Gender, Safety, and Place Making in a Shelter for Battered Women,' supervised by Dr. Bambi Schieffelin. This research investigates the production of culturally legible safe space for battered women and children. Using ethnographic data gathered from Massachusetts' human service systems and shelter network, the grantee analyzes and compares the ideological, material, and systemic architectures domestic-violence professionals construct to create security. Funding supported the second phase of this research including: participant observation at a shelter campus operated at a published location; interviews with domestic-violence experts and building professionals; and participation in workshops and public awareness events, as well as tours and photography in emergency shelters. This line of inquiry uncovered an engagement with space shared by professionals across the spectrum of domestic-violence intervention. Strong beliefs and differences of opinion highlighted a semiotics of women's safety that emphasizes personal interiors, domestic routines, and familial intimacy. By mapping the social resources professionals use to sustain emergency-shelter programs, this study situates emergency shelters in a bureaucratic network that enables and regulates victims' access to services as well as their success or failure. Emphasizing the cultural and institutional framework of emergency shelters, this dissertation will contribute an empirical analysis of the gendered space of personal safety, as well as of the transition domestic-violence professionals make available to abused women and children.
Cruz-Torres, Dr. Maria Luz, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid engaged activities on 'The Shrimp Traders: Working Women in Southern Sinaloa, Mexico,' 2013, Southern Sinaloa, Mexico
DR. MARIA L. CRUZ-TORRES, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, was awarded an Engaged Anthropology Grant in August 2012 to aid 'The Shrimp Traders: Working Women in Southern Sinaloa, Mexico.' This project makes available the results from previous research on women shrimp traders in southern Sinaloa to the general public, and ensures that the women's voices are central in this process. The shrimp traders and grantee agreed that writing and publishing a book in Spanish with their testimonies would provide the venue for people to grasp their realities and lived experiences, and to hear their voices for the first time. Life histories collected during previous research serve as the basis for women's oral testimonies. Following the transcription of the testimonies, women then proceeded to edit them and to select their photographs, as part of the engagement process. The book, entitled Voices in Time: The Life and Work of Women Shrimp Traders in Southern Sinaloa, focuses on the challenges and struggles women shrimp traders face in order to pursue their livelihoods. It contributes to a better interpretation of the manner in which women's roles as workers, mothers, and wives are intertwined, and how they negotiate these on a daily basis. The book also seeks to bridge the gap between academic discourse and community understandings of the role and responsibility of the anthropologist towards the people she works with.
Lee, Tina Marie, CUNY-Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Stratified Reproduction and Definitions of Child Neglect: State Practices and Parents' Response,' supervised by Dr. Leith Mullings
DR. JENNIFER HASTY, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, Washington, received funding in May 2004 to aid research on 'Corruption and the Politics of Indigeneity in Ghana.' From July 2004 to August 2005, the grantee conducted twelve months of fieldwork on corruption and anticorruption in Ghana. While the anticorruption programs of international donors and NGOs diagnose corruption as a problem of selfish greed and cynicism, this research supports the argument that the practices of corruption are deeply rooted in notions of indigenous African identity, sociality, and global positionality. Archival work on anticolonial newspapers and postcolonial Commissions of Enquiry illustrates how the Ghanaian sense of indigeneity was key to the crafting of resistance to colonial forms of expropriation, as well as the Africanization of the nation-state, and, more recently, neoliberal participation in global processes (both fueling and fighting corruption). If historical and sociocultural factors are key to the endurance of corruption, then solutions to the problem of corruption must engage with the sociocultural dynamics at work, rather than criminalize the 'temptations' of sociality and local culture (gift-giving, favors, nepotism), as donor anticorruption often do. In six months of participant-observation, working as an assistant to a corruption investigator at the Ghana Serious Fraud Office, the grantee studied how the work of anticorruption is infused with socially-embedded forms of morality, often inspired by local Christianity (as opposed to the secularist and individualist discourses of donors).
Takamine, Linda Hiromi, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Alcoholism and Recovery as Everyday Practice,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
Preliminary abstract: Why do some find it extremely difficult to stop drinking despite negative consequences, while others manage to stop? It is common knowledge among alcoholism researchers that the majority of alcoholics recover outside of clinical facilities, but little is known about how they do so. This project builds on addiction research that defines addiction behavior as a constellation of automatic, skilled substance-seeking and -consumption behaviors, and relapses as the omission of deliberate actions to deter these automatic behaviors. This project provisionally defines the changes to drinking behaviors experienced by those who achieve sobriety as the establishment of routinized skilled actions that they enact instead of the sequences of behaviors that, singly or in multiples over time, may result in drinking. This research has two objectives: 1) To explain, in part, the difficulty some experience in becoming sober through a systematic exploration of the ways in which drinking is intertwined within a range of practical behaviors within everyday contexts. This study seeks to establish the range of behaviors that may lead toward drinking and the settings and configurations of material artifacts, other persons, and social positions or identities in which they occur. 2) To explore factors that influence the establishment and enactment of alternate skilled behaviors in order to provide a positive account of both change and lack of change by focusing on the relationship between meaning and radical transformations of experience, perception, and behavior. This research will take place from November 2011 to October 2013 in Austin, Texas and will consist of observation of practical activities within everyday settings, analysis of face-to-face interaction between recovering alcoholics, and life history interviews.
Embuldeniya, Gayathri Eugenie, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Producing the Homeland from Elsewhere: The Changing Place-making Practices of Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto,' supervised by Dr. Mary Elizabeth Hancock
GAYA EMBULDENIYA, then a student at University of California, Santa Barbara, California, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Producing the Homeland from Elsewhere: The Changing Place-Making Practices of Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto,' supervised by Dr. Mary E. Hancock. The research investigated how immigrants remember, recreate, and transform place, by producing it in a new locale. In particular, this research investigated the place-making practices of Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto, and how these commitments to both village and desired nation-state (uur and Tamil Eelam) have changed over time. The concept of 'place' structures Tamil identities in multiple ways: village associations reproduce old village networks in Toronto; place as the desired nation-state of Tamil Eelam is of importance to many; and Tamil settlement has itself coalesced around certain neighborhoods of Toronto and Scarborough. However, place-making practices have also changed over time and across generations, the most recent shift being heralded by the Tamil protests that took place over six months in Toronto, as the end of Sri Lanka's 25-year old civil war drew near. The significance of this research lies in the ethnographic data it provides on how place may be transported and reproduced in a new socio-political and geographic locale. It contributes to scholarship on space, place, and memory, by suggesting that place-making practices must also be localized in time, and understood as inflected by temporal socio-political events.
Matza, Alexis R., U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'The Medicalization of Masculinity: Comparing Testosterone Therapy in the Aging Male and Transgender Populations,' supervised by Dr. Ellen Lewin
ALEXIS R. MATZA, then a student at University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, was awarded a grant in May 2005 to aid research on 'The Medicalization of Masculinity: Comparing Testosterone Therapy in the Aging Male and Transgender Populations,' supervised by Dr. Ellen Lewin. While all healthy male and female bodies produce testosterone, in North America testosterone is thought to be the substance that makes men masculine. Testosterone therapy, the use of synthetic testosterone as a hormone replacement therapy, at once establishes, maintains, and enforces a coherently embodied gender. Testosterone is at once a symbol of cultural notions of masculinity and a commodity, a metaphor and an object. This research analyzed multiple discourses of testosterone and disparate usages of testosterone therapy in two intriguingly divergent populations in North America. Aging men (ages 40-70) and transgender men (male-identified, though not born biological men), illuminate the extent to which masculinity is a cultural construction, influenced by culture, biology, and technology. This project explores how masculinity is pursued, not just through the accumulation of culturally sanctified behaviors, but also through technological modifications of the body. The findings of this project include the realization that ordinary men, subject at once to their individual desires and society's hegemonic demands of appropriate masculinity, do not always conform to stereotypes of appropriate masculinity. In addition, this project found that both transgender and non-transgender aging men use gendered performance as a type of mask, a phenomenon that the grantee calls Maskulinity.
Zlolniski, Dr. Christian, U. of Texas, Arlington, TX - To aid research on 'The Global Fresh-Produce Industry and the Settlement of Indigenous Workers in Baja California'
DR. CHRISTIAN ZLOLNISKI, University of Texas, Arlington, Texas, received funding in April 2008 to conduct research in the San Quintin Valley in Baja California, Mexico. His study examines how the growth of the export-oriented fresh-produce industry has affected the employment opportunities and labor migration patterns of indigenous farm laborers who come from southern Mexico. He conducted participant observation and household interviews with Mixtec, Triqui, and Zapotec workers and families. Preliminary results show that these families have improved their living conditions, have longer seasons of employment, and more stable income from agricultural jobs. Child labor has declined, while health, sanitary, and safety conditions have improved as a result of demanding regulations to export fresh produce. Yet, wages and employment benefits have not kept up with the growing productivity in agriculture, which have increased substantially due to new technologies such as greenhouse production. In contrast to the expectations of this neoliberal model of economic development, adult members are migrating to the United States to help offset the costs of settlement and housing. Perhaps the most damaging effect, however, has been a sharp decline in the quality and quantity of water resources fueled by the intensification of export agriculture and overexploitation of underground water resources, causing water insecurity, social unrest, and political protests in the Valley.
Glaser, Alana Lee, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Francophone African Women's Domestic Labor: Migration, Workplace Politics, and Cross-ethnic Alliances in New York,' supervised by Dr. Micaela di Leonardo
ALANA LEE GLASER, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Francophone African Women's Domestic Labor: Migration, Workplace Politics, and Cross-Ethnic Alliances in New York,' supervised by Dr. Micaela de Leonardo. Building on political-economic and feminist scholarship on the positioning of migrant domestic labor in the contemporary global neoliberal era, this dissertation research provides an ethnographic study of the routine and often invisible labor market participation of West African women in New York City's low-income service and caregiving sectors in positions such as childcare, home healthcare, and hair braiding. It simultaneously attends to the New York City domestic worker movement at a critical moment in its history, as New York State passed the Domestic Worker Bill of Rights, the nation's first-ever legislation granting basic workplace protection to home-based workers. The findings are based on more than two years of deep immersion participant-observation in New York and short-term research trips alongside interlocutors to Mali and Senegal, as well as in-depth, institutional ethnography within labor, activist, cultural, and religious organizations throughout New York City. Drawing upon roughly 100 oral history interviews, this ethnography demonstrates the ways in which domestic work both constrains and empowers women workers, while exigencies of migration status, poverty, racism, and gender oppression complicate both their daily lives and activist inclinations.
Nadasdy, Dr. Paul, U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - To aid research on 'A Cultural Analysis of Kluane First Nation Land Claim Negotiations, Canada'
DR. PAUL NADASDY, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, was awarded a grant in May 2003 to aid research on 'A Cultural Analysis of Kluane First Nation Land Claim Negotiations.' Paul Nadasdy completed one year of fieldwork in the southwest Yukon, where he explored the sociocultural dimensions of the negotiation/implementation of land and self-government agreements recently signed by Canada, the Yukon Territory, and the Kluane First Nation (KFN). Building upon past experiences observing and participating in KFN's negotiations, Nadasdy worked in KFN's Land Claims office and observed KFN's transition from an Indian Act band into a fully self-governing First Nation. He participated in several intergovernmental processes, including a formal nine-year review of the existing land and self-government agreements in the Yukon. Much of the talk at this review was necessarily interpretive, as the parties sought to characterize what they thought negotiators had originally intended (to determine whether the agreements have lived up to those intentions), thus providing Nadasdy with an important window into the meanings different parties assigned to provisions of the agreements. Nadasdy also conducted extensive research in KFN's Land Claims office and in the Yukon Archives. These repositories contain a wealth of documents on land claim negotiations in the Yukon. Analyzing them has enabled him to better understand the impact specific historical events had upon negotiations. In addition, Nadasdy conducted interviews with key negotiators and implementation officials from all three governments. The interviews not only helped him understand officials' various understandings of the agreements, but provided him with an understanding of the social relations, values, and practices in which they are enmeshed and which necessarily inform and constrain the positions they can take at the table. Finally, while Nadasdy was in the field, his graduate research assistant finished transcribing approximately 70 tapes of Kluane First Nation's land claim negotiations. These provide him with a verbatim account of KFN's land claim negotiations between 1994 and 1998.
Nadasdy, Paul. 2005. Transcending the Debate over the Ecologically Noble Indian: Indigenous Peoples and Environmentalism. Ethnohistory 52(2):291-331.
Nadasdy, Paul. 2007. The Gift in the Animal: The Ontology of Hunting and Human-Animal Sociality.American Ethnologist 34(1):25-43.
Nadasdy, Paul. 2012. Boundaries among Kin: Sovereignty, the Modern Treaty Process, and the Rise of Ethno-Territorial Nationalism among Yukon First Nations. Comparative Studies in Society and History 54(3);499-532.