Kartari, Dr. Asker, Kadir Has U., Istanbul, Turkey - To aid InASEA conference on 'Cultures of Crisis: Experiencing and Coping with Upheavals and Disasters in Southeast Europe,' 2014, Istanbul, in collaboration with Dr. Klaus Roth
Preliminary abstract: Both the history of the last two centuries and the present of Southeast Europe are marked by deep transformations and upheavals. The emergence and disappearance of states, ethnic conflicts and wars, the fundamental changes of political systems and social order, deep economic crises as well as natural disasters are only the more visible ones of these upheavals. Experiencing and coping with uncertainties and crises can thus be considered one of the important features of the processes of modernization on the Balkan Peninsula. In many cases the ongoing crisis became a way of life. People react to such upheavals and crises in various ways, with subjugation or adaptation, most often, though, with employing cultural techniques and everyday strategies, with using traditions of submission, appropriation or refusal. The primary goal of the conference will not be to elucidate the natural, political, military or socio-economic causes of societal, social or individual crises. The papers should rather focus, from an ethnological or anthropological perspective, on the reactions of societies, of social groups (such as families) or of individuals to such crises, on their impact on the everyday life of people, on their various strategies of managing and coping with them, on the processes of adaptation and interpretation, and on peoples' concepts and attitudes.
Tishkov, Dr. Valery A., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia - To aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint: Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia'
DR. VALERY TISHKOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, was awarded a grant in January 2001, to aid research on 'Anthropology of Complaint:Changing Life Perceptions, Identities and Outside World Images in Transforming Russia.' This research is a basic revision of the crisis paradigm in Russia based on a study of complaints, fears, and concerns demonstrated through surveys and participant observations by different strata, regional and cultural groups of the country. Research disclosed disparities between 'real life' improvements for the majority of Russian people and its negative perceptions dominant in public and academic discourses. The reasons for disparities and miscalculations lie in inadequate expert analysis of a rapidly changing society, in political instrumentalism, in mental inertia of producers alld consumers of elitist prescriptions. Several basic conclusions are meaningful for anthropological analysis of social change. The society overloaded with changes can perceive in negative terms even changes to the good. The growing complexity and uncertainties represent a challenge that is difficult to meet for post-Soviet populace accustomed to one-dimtnsional thinking, state protection, and a strictly controlled social life. At the same time, highly educated populace in Russia demonstrated innovative strategies and reached unprecedented level of consumption, often through extra-legal entrepreneurial activities. Complaint became a part of collective and individual strategjes to get more sympathy and material rewards. But the structureof complaints shows that Russia is a normal country where people are more concerned with basic needs in socia! conditions and individual success then in collective aspirations, such as a country status or ethnic group sovereignty. People in Russia are muddling through transformations as people do in other societies. This research helps to overcome a real crisis of understanding on how societies change and how people perceive and use these changes.
Leinaweaver, Dr. Jessaca Bennett, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'From Peru to Spain: Transnational Adoption and Migration'
DR. JESSACA LEINAWEAVER, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received funding in December 2010, to aid research on 'From Peru to Spain: Transnational Adoption and Migration.' This research, based in Madrid, compared those young Peruvians who were adopted by Spanish parents and are growing up in an increasingly multicultural setting, to those young Peruvians who migrated alongside their Peruvian parents seeking economic opportunities. The grantee conducted extensive interviews and observation among both populations and with professionals and scholars involved in both adoption and migration. The study found that although there are important differences between adoption and migration, there is also great value in comparing them. Migration and adoption overlap in time, often share the same points of origin and arrival, and are driven by some of the same broader forces. Despite the differences in their form of arrival to a Madrid that is suddenly and rapidly becoming racially diverse, young people of Peruvian origin share several experiences in common. The grantee is writing a book based on these findings, tentatively entitled 'Transnational Children: What Adoption and Migration Mean for a Global World,' which unites the objects of study, approaches, and theoretical frames of both kinship and migration literatures.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2013. Toward an Anthropology of Ingratitude: Notes from Andean Kinship. Comparative Studies in Society and History 55(3):554-578.
Leinaweaver, Jessaca B. 2013. Adoptive Migration: Raising Latinos in Spain. Duke University Press: Durham and London.
Buier, Natalia Cornelia, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'Past Remembered, Present Opposed: Historical Memory and Labor Contention in the Spanish Railway Sector,' supervised by Dr. Don Kalb
Preliminary abstract: The acceleration of the process of privatization of the Spanish railways is situated at the critical intersection of the current debt-collecting pressures affecting the country and the historical transformations of the public utility model. Starting with the current workers' opposition to the privatization of the railways, I aim to reconstruct the post-Francoist history of labor protest in the railway sector. The focus of this historical ethnography is on the way in which plural representations of the past condition, enable and also appropriate contemporary expressions of working class opposition. With the railways as a key symbol of modernization under Franco, but also as a later showcase of the political discourses built around the image of a Spain that needs to correct its deviation from the 'European path', the history of the railway sector articulates some of the most important symbols in the contemporary history of the country. The main theoretical contribution of my research comes in the form of a proposal for applying the insights of the anthropology of memory and contestation to the anthropological study of labor politics. In this I aim to advance the exploratory direction of an anthropology of labor fundamentally concerned with social memory practices. Equally though, the historical ethnography of labor struggle in the Spanish railways constitutes itself as an avenue towards understanding the way in which national labor forces respond to and interact with the pressures of European neoliberalism and capital's disciplinary instruments within the new 'Europe of austerity'.
Merlan, Dr. Francesca C., Australian National U., Canberra, Australia - To aid research on 'Community and Society in Southern Germany'
DR. FRANCESCA C. MERLAN, of the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, received a grant in August 2001 to aid research on community and society in southern Germany. As part of a larger, continuing project, Merlan conducted field research and analysis on (1) Einheimischenmodelle, or Gemeinde-level legislative schemes that restrict and direct the development and sale of land to people able to claim 'indigenous' (einheimisch) status; (2) tensions and contestation over the inheritance of farming properties, given changes in land use and the exiting of some families from dairying in the region; and (3) Dorferneuerung, or 'village renewal' programs, as implemented with the intention of preserving village integrity and community life. In her overall project, Merlan was concerned with vernacular and (other) regulatory concepts of land, land use, work, and occupation in this part of southern Germany and with (generally conservative as well as 'illiberal' or communitarian) development practices. Her research was intended to inform a book placing the south German case in a broader, comparative framework, showing it to be one instance of the growth of 'indigenist' claims to land and belonging in a global context, a context in which land occupies a changing place among the productive factors in contemporary political economies of the developed world.
Diaz de Rada, Dr. Angel, U. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'The Construction of Belonging: Expressive Practices and Identity Appropriations among 'Saami' and 'Norwegians' in Kautokeino'
DR. ANGEL DIAZ DE RADA, of the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia in Madrid, Spain, received funding in May 2002 to aid research on expressive practices and identity appropriations among 'Saami' and 'Norwegians' in Kautokeino, Norway. Diaz de Rada's main contention was that construction of the multiple meanings of belonging in Guovdageaidnu-a small but central place in the Saami-Norwegian world-might be best understood as a fight for continuity. He proposed redefining belonging as continuity transferred to the spatial realm of a territory or to the social realm of a collectivity. Belonging is, in this context, a manageable category for the institutional rhetorics and processing of links and for ethnopolitical representation, because working for a place and working for a people are valued instrumental objectives (in contrast to working for the past or working for time continuities). Nevertheless, Diaz de Rada found a clear contrast between discourses and practices of identification in the sphere of the personal and presentative subjects, on one hand, and those in the sphere of the institutional and representative subjects, on the other. In the first case, identification was clearly stated as a set of time-binding operations; in the second, it was stated as a set of territorial, spatial, and demographic images. Place, territory, and people operated as concrete signifiers of time continuities, as tangible units for institutional mobilization and bureaucratic management. The ethnopolitical process itself arose as a special (and partial) dimension of the tension between fragmentation and continuity in this contemporary piece of society. This tension was not, as in the classic gesellschaft-gemeinschaft dichotomy, a matter of opposite modes of social linkage but a tensional processing of every social link.
Díaz de Rada, Ángel. 2004. El Sujeto en la Corriente. Reflexiones Sobre el Sujeto Social en Condiciones de Globalización. In El Nuevo Orden de Caos: Consecuencias Socioculturales de la 75 Globalización. Luis Díaz G. Viana, ed. Consejo Superior de investigaciones Científicas: Madrid.
Diaz de Rada, Angel. 2007. School Bureaucracy, Ethnography and Culture: Conceptual Obstacles to Doing Ethnography in Schools. Social Anthropology 15(2): 205-222
Diaz de Rada, Angel. 2007. Valer y Valor. Una Exhumacion de la Teoría del Valor para Reflexionar sobre la Desigualdad y Diferencia en Relación con la Escuela. Revista de Anthropología Social (16): 117-158
Petruccio, Claudia L., U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Amniocentesis, Cultural Mediation, and the Construction of Difference in Italy,' supervised by Dr. Joseph S. Alter
CLAUDIA L. PETRUCCIO, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was awarded a grant in January 2005 to aid research on 'Amniocentesis, Cultural Mediation, and the Construction of Difference in Italy,' supervised by Dr. Joseph S. Alter. This project examined a program in which native speakers of thirty languages facilitate the delivery of culturally competent healthcare to recent immigrants in Florence, Italy. Research was designed to reveal the ways in which culture is defined, represented, and enacted throughout the various administrative and clinical registers of the program, and was focused primarily on a prenatal clinic for Chinese immigrants housed in a center for the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The researcher attended trainings for cultural mediators, participated in the daily life of prenatal clinics where Arab, Romanian, and Chinese mediators assisted patients, and shadowed a Chinese mediator as she conducted rounds in the prenatal and maternity wards of a large suburban hospital. Interviews were conducted with administrators, doctors, midwives, mediators, and patients to elicit opinions about the meanings of culture and how it relates to the needs of expectant and new immigrant mothers. Particular attention was paid to points of disjuncture in clinical practice, where ideal theories or romanticized versions of culture came into conflict with the legal, material and structural reality of immigrant patients. The women who frequented the clinics described their needs primarily in legal, structural, and economic terms: long working hours and poor conditions, greater need for translation services, and difficulty navigating the bureaucracy of medical and government offices. All of these needs were addressed in daily interactions in the clinic, yet the clinic staff expressed a frustrating incongruity between an idealized Chinese culture, associated with healthful living and a balanced lifestyle, and the often unhealthy circumstances of their immigrant patients.
Gokariksel, Saygun, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Of Truths, Secrets, and Loyalties: Politics of Purification of the State in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
SAYGUN GOKARIKSEL, then a student at City University of New York - Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded a grant in April 2009, to aid research on 'Of Truths, Secrets, and Loyalties: Politics of Purification of the State in Postsocialist Poland,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery. The recent opening of Communist security service archives in Eastern Europe has ignited contentious questions concerning the secrets of the Second World War and the Cold War, of resistance and collaboration, as well as a radical interrogation of the loyalties, values, and practices acquired under state socialism. This research explores the judicial uses of the security files compiled by the Communist security service in Poland. Through archival and ethnographic research it examines lustration -- a screening process implemented throughout Eastern Europe, which uses these files to ban security service officers and civilian collaborators from holding public office. It investigates how this judicial process reorganizes the state apparatus, redefines the relationship between the new state and the citizen-subject by reinterpreting and disqualifying loyalties and practices acquired under state socialism, and produces a new normative framework through which the socialist past is reevaluated and individual life trajectories retrospectively given form. The research focuses on the contentious questions that lustration raises, which interrogate the limits of liberal notions of public and private (sector) accountability, state secrecy and transparency, national sovereignty and international human rights, collective and individual responsibility, and freedom of speech and individual privacy.
Romer, Johanna Ilene, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Constructing Violence: Risk, Security, and Criminal Justice Professions in Catalonia,' supervised by Dr. Bambi B. Schieffelin
Preliminary abstract: Spain has the highest rates of incarceration in Europe, and Catalonia one of the highest rates of incarceration of foreigners--almost half of the region's inmates are not Spanish citizens. This situation has brought to the forefront of public debate the uncertainties about civility and security in urban Spain. This project examines the situated production of security and self-governing persons in Catalonia. It examines how new technologies of security have been introduced in this context, shaping criminal justice professionals conceptions of risk and violence. I ask how concepts of 'risk' and 'violence' are typified and sorted into categories that can be measured and predicted. Examining the linguistic and social practices through which professionals are socialized into dieas about risk and violence can reveal how European Union, Spanish, and Catalan discourses of security construct self-governing persons.
Hodges, Dr. Andrew J., U. of Manchester, Manchester, UK - To aid conference on 'Anthropology Otherwise: Rethinking Approaches to Fieldwork in Different Anthropological Traditions,' 2011,Valjevo, Serbia, in collaboration with Dr. Marina Simic
Preliminary abstract: The conference aims to: (1) provide a forum in which to try out a consensus-based decision making process in order to find common ground between different research methodologies and foci; (2) generate a dialogue between anthropologists working on projects based in the Balkan region, yet in different ethnographic traditions. This includes those who use 'immersion' (long-term fieldwork) and 'back and forth' (repeated short visits, characteristic for Eastern and South Eastern European ethnologies) models of ethnographic research. The aim is to discuss epistemological possibilities opened and closed by each of these models; (3) provoke anthropologists to take seriously the premise that the material and organisational culture(s) of an event or institution shape (if not determine) in an important way, the kinds of and qualities of knowledge produced. The conference will address: different ways of framing research questions, various possibilities for translating theory into ethnographic practice and back, the re-evaluation of 'older' ethnographies from the Balkan region, problems ethnographers face when working in the region, and the place of visuality in different research methodologies.