Van Deusen Phillips, Sarah B., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Cultural Bodies: Language, Enactment and Performance of Value in Linguistically Isolated Deaf Children,' supervised by Dr. Susan Goldin-Meadow
SARAH B. VAN DEUSEN PHILLIPS, while a student at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, received a grant in December 2001 to aid research on language, enactment, and performance of value in linguistically isolated deaf children, under the supervision of Dr. Susan Goldin-Meadow. It is widely accepted that engagement in narrative activities plays a key role in the socialization and maintenance of beliefs, values, and morality from one generation to the next. Therefore, telling stories is an important means by which children enter local meaning systems and encounter local versions of personhood. But an unspoken assumption in language socialization research is that children must share a language with their community in order to engage in and benefit from the socializing influence of narrative. Phillips's research represented one side of a comparative study focusing on populations of orally educated deaf children of hearing parents in the United States and Spain. Five Spanish deaf children, ages two to four years, and their families were the focus of ten months of interaction and observation using both ethnographic and experimental research methods. Phillips explore the ways in which these children learned to construct their contributions to local narrative discourse despite sharing no language in common with the hearing members of their communities. These profoundly deaf children had not been exposed to conventional sign language and instead communicated with the hearing members of their families using home sign, an idiosyncratic system of regularly ordered spontaneous gestures.
Luibheid, Dr. Eithne, Bowling Green State U., Bowling Green, OH - To aid research on 'Babies of Convenience? African Asylum Seekers and Childbearing in Ireland'
DR. EITHNE LUIBHEID, of Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio, was awarded a grant in May 2002 to aid research on African asylum seekers and childbearing in Ireland. In the 1990s, Ireland was transformed from an emigrant nation into a destination eagerly sought by migrants from around the world, both immigrant workers and asylum seekers. Luibheid analyzed the Irish government's and public's responses to the most controversial of all newcomers-childbearing African asylum seekers-in order to theorize the relationship between national and supranational (e.g., European Union) identities, imaginaries, and governance structures as these were negotiated, contested, and transformed. The questions that guided the research included, How can feminist anthropological scholarship be extended in order to understand struggles for control over asylum seekers' childbearing as a mechanism for rearticulating the link between the national and the supranational? In what ways do these struggles draw migrant women's reproductive capacities into new circuits of commodification within a global system while also providing new opportunities for agency? How do these struggles reveal the refashioning of gender and racial relations in national and EU contexts? Luibheid's preliminary findings included the observation that controversies over asylum seekers' childbearing had given the state a means to reconstitute a notion of the sovereign Irish nation, despite globalization. Moreover, the controversies used women's bodies as a terrain for installing new racial distinctions and rearticulating older ones-distinctions that now structure everyday life in Ireland. The controversies have materially affected asylum-seeking women's possibilities for being recognized as full members of the Irish polity, in terms of both accessing rights and engaging in practices of democratic citizenship.
Luibhéid, Eithne. 2004. Childbearing Against the State? Asylum Seeker Women in the Irish Republic. Women?s Studies International Forum 27:335-349.
Luibheid, Eithne. 2006. Sexual Regimes and Migration Controls: Reproducing the Irish Nation-State in Transnational Contexts. Feminist Review 83:60-78.
Cherkaev, Xenia Andrej, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli
XENIA A. CHERKAEV, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli. In 2011, Putin warned that the American-funded political opposition would falsify the election results' falsification, and might kill someone off, to blame the government. Attempting to write a history of this present, where universal corruption accusations blend easily into conspiracy theory, this project examines changing regimes of circulation, and the correlating changes in regimes of truth. It begins in late-Soviet Leningrad, asking how people made and obtained everyday things by using their positions in the centralized distribution system, their access to surplus material hoarded by enterprises, and the reified norms of State institutions - and how State Secrecy, permeating everyday life as another monolithic norm, guaranteed a truth, just out of reach: 'It irritated! There were certain things some idiot didn't want me to know!' It then asks how regimes of both truth and circulation changed with the post-Soviet transition, in which the sudden disclosure of previously unavailable materials correlated with widespread political discussion, extrasensory and religious activity, sharp commodity deficit, and new economic policies, which allowed people to make cash on State surplus and informal deals that 'took the country apart by the screws ? swiped everything from precious metals to Arab horses... fantastic times!'
Fernandez Garcia, Sandra, UNED, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'Meanings and Senses in Process: An Ethnography of Emerging Practices of Artistic-technological Production in Urban Contexts,' supervised by Dr. Angel Diaz de Rada Brun
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
My research deals with the processes of artistic production in liminal places with diffuse borders between different areas of knowledge such as science, technology, and art, on one hand and, on the other, forms of action and social organization that generate work dynamics based on shared meanings. There is a series of public and private, fixed and itinerant spaces that make up a network that is dynamic, changing, and superimposed on other networks, through which people and objects circulate. Medialab-Prado, Tabakalera or Hangar, are examples of the places in Spain in which groups of people who develop practices of production and learning in very specific ways converge. These practices are generally influenced by the ways free software programming is organized and by the idea of 'commons' or public utility. These network relationships, in which the focus is moved away from the artistic object and onto the process, involve a kind of artistic generation that has a very marked political focus, and this provides the opportunity to investigate the spaces of culture as political spaces. My research focuses on an ethnographic analysis of the practical construction of this concrete form of what we call artistic objects in our contemporary urban society. The objective is to understand the relationship of this kind of object and the practices that produce and distribute it with the model of social relations in which it is inserted, as well as the production of political (urban activism) meaning that this relationship generates.
Quest, Mary Nell, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'Renewing the Port, Rethinking Space: Experiences of Urban Renewal in Marseille,' supervised by Dr. Frances E. Mascia-Lees
MARY NELL QUEST, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, was awarded a grant in April 2008 to aid research on 'Renewing the Port, Rethinking Space: Experiences of Urban Renewal in Marseille, France' supervised by Dr. Frances Mascia-Lees. This project explored people's sensory experiences of urban renewal projects currently underway in Marseille, France. These urban projects are reconstructing the city's infrastructure and refining its image: as France's port city on the Mediterranean, the city played an important role in colonialism before falling into economic decline and becoming associated with criminality and inassimilable immigration. However, current urban renewal efforts are recasting this image, and positing the city as central in changing relations between France, Europe, and the other side of the Mediterranean. The central research question asked in this project was as follows: Within this changing urban context, how do diverse social actors, through their embodied, sensory experience, sense belonging to the city, the nation, the Mediterranean region, and to Europe more broadly? With Foundation support, fieldwork was conducted among residents from various Marseille neighborhoods, urban planners, architects, government officials, social workers, association leaders, and activists. Methodologically, the approach combined archival research, participant observation, sensory recordings, participatory walking tours, and ethnographic interviews. The dissertation will contribute to scholarly work in the anthropology of immigration, urban anthropology of globalization, embodiment studies, and science studies.
Halawa, Mateusz Pawel, New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Inhabiting Postsocialism: The Rise of Mortgages in Poland,' supervised by Dr. Ann Laura Stoler
Preliminary abstract: In the recent years mortgages, newly introduced in Poland, have been contributing to the rearranging of property relations, stimulating construction, and enabling middle class aspirations in this postsocialist society. There are more than 1.5 million active contracts today, and there exists no significant group of people who have completed their payments. The typical horizon of household indebtedness reaches more years into the future than the memory of market economy into the past. Half of those contracts are adjustable rate mortgages denominated in Swiss francs, leveraging low interest rates and currency exchange fluctuations. They draw mortgage households into the networks of global finance, enabling people to enjoy the benefits of speculation, but also subjecting them to unprecedented risks and uncertainties. This project engages the anthropology of credit and debt as well as the anthropology of finance in tracking the work of mortgages in enabling new forms of life and wealth in Poland after socialism. It offers an ethnography of financial instruments that forge differences between people through credit, debt, and scoring; enroll households into the markets in property, currency, and capital; and give rhythm and horizon to everyday life 'on one's own.' The research is guided by three questions: (1) What market devices, currencies, laws, people, institutions, and places need to come together in the design of the mortgages in Poland to make them efficacious? (2) How do mortgages work to rearrange the practices of everyday life and domestic economies of Polish households? (3) In what ways do mortgages become associated with shifts in social organization mediated by property in Poland 20 years after the fall of socialism?
Santha, Dr. Istvan, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; and Ssorin-Chaikov, Dr. Nikolai, Cambridge U., Cambridge, UK - To aid collaborative research on 'Power, 'Authorities', and Emotions in Post-Socialist Russia'
Preliminary abstract: The project aims to study the emotional experiences of people involved in hierarchical relationships, that have to participate in performances of power, such as celebrations of national and regional leaders. The researchers plan to study the phenomena of public celebrations from the new perspective with the focus on emotional experiences of the participants, their emotional involvement and control of expressions. This new approach is a result of critical attention toward premises of western tradition of thought that tends to separate private emotional phenomenon from public performativity. The previous fieldwork experiences of collaborators showed that even the most formal patterns of behavior in Russia (such as official celebrations at the Houses of Culture or highly formalized celebrations of birthdays of national leaders with presenting of gifts) arouse the emotions of quite a wide range, from excitement too cynicism. The project is planned to become comparative. The fieldworks in two field sites (Moscow and Ulan-Ude) at one time will help to compare the patterns that evolve in the center and periphery. This comparison will help to analyze the phenomenon of power performances in different contexts.
Jaroka, Livia, U. College of London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ethnic Relations and the Management of Everyday Life among Hungarian-Speaking Urban Roma in Postcommunist Hungary,' supervised by Dr. Michael S. Stewart
LIVIA JAROKA, while a student at University College of London in London, England, received funding in January 2002 to aid research on ethnic relations and the management of everyday life among Hungarian-speaking urban Roma in post-communist Hungary, under the supervision of Dr. Michael S. Stewart. Jaroka's fieldwork was focused on Roma living in the Jozsefvaros, an area in the Eighth District of Budapest. Data were gathered on Roma social organization, status, and experiences of and responses to social, cultural, economic, political, and human rights conditions since the political-system change in 1989. Special emphasis was placed on factors encouraging or discouraging assimilation or the continued classification of others as Roma. The data showed how the Roma-most of whom had lost economic security after the change of the political system-had failed to be absorbed into Hungarian society, mainly because the non-Roma population appeared to accept unrealistic, exotic stereotypes of Roma and to be unwilling to accept the integration attempts of aspiring Roma. The everyday experiences of informants showed that integration attempts were rejected by majority Hungarians even while the Roma were constantly blamed for 'not being able and willing to integrate.' The discriminative attitude among the majority was the main reason for seeking assimilation, yet many Roma, especially younger people, chose a more nationalistic Roma attitude, often antagonistic to non-Roma.
Konvalinka, Dr. Nancy Anne, U. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid, Spain - To aid research on 'Late-Forming Families. The Organization of Care-Giving and the Concept of Generation'
DR. NANCY A. KONVALINKA, National University of Distance Education, Madrid, Spain, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Late-Forming Families: The Organization of Care-Giving and the Concept of Generation.' Research on the organization of care-giving and the concept of generation in the growing group of late-forming families in Madrid, Spain, has found that late family formation (at the age of 35 or later) changes the dynamics of intergenerational care-giving present in families formed earlier. Whereas people who form families earlier often count on their parents for help with childcare, people who do so later, and whose parents are, therefore, older, find themselves simultaneously responsible for elder-care and childcare. While people feel that elder-care is an inescapable responsibility, having children is considered a personal choice, only to be undertaken if or when people have the capacity for providing childcare. The combination of a rigid order of culturally patterned life-course stages during difficult circumstances -- in the context of a welfare state that places the main responsibility for childcare and for care for the elderly and other dependents on the family -- helps explain people's tardiness in family formation. If kinship is considered to be both structure and process, late family formation, seemingly inevitable due to current life courses, places these families under a great intergenerational care-giving strain and will require them to negotiate some kind of solution.
Konvalinka, Nancy. 2013. Caring for Young and Old: The Care-giving Bind in Late-forming Families. In Pathways to Empathy: New Studies on Commodification, Emotional Labor, and Time Binds. G. Koch and S. Everke, eds. Campus Verlag: Frankfurt, New York
Konvalinka, Nancy. 2012. Methods and Concepts at Work: Generation and Caregiving in 'Late-Forming Families'. Anthropology News 53(5):10.