Mattioli, Fabio, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Productive Debts: The Financialization of Urban Life and the Magic of Debts in Skopje, Macedonia,' supervised by Dr. Katherine Verdery
Preliminary abstract: Despite the promise that the center of Macedonia's capital 'will become like Times Square', the urban redevelopment project Skopje 2014 has run out of money. Yet, local building companies continue to erect new buildings, borrowing materials and not paying workers on time. What drives the continuing production of Skopje 2014's new urban spaces, once debt and not capital is being accumulated? How do building companies transform negative debt relations in productive forms of credit? Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three building companies of different size, this study analyzes the stalled relations of debt within building companies, and their continuing ties to the post-socialist Macedonian State and neoliberal international lenders. This research addresses the way in which networks of reciprocity at different scales manipulate debts to turn them into credits, and the problems of conversion that occur when debts and credits move across different domains of social life.
Gaikwad, Namrata, U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN - To aid research on 'Men against Matrilineage: Contestations Around Gender Politics in Shillong, India,' supervised by Dr. Jean Langford
NAMRATA GAIKWAD, then a student at University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, was awarded a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Men against Matrilineage: Contestations around Gender Politics in Shillong, India,' supervised by Dr. Jean Langford. During Summer 2011, a second-phase of research was conducted (through participant observation, discussions and interviews) both in the urban center of Shillong but also extended to semi-urban and rural settings in the state of Meghalaya. The data collected provided unique insights into the ways in which dynamics around gender and kinship intersect with conceptualizations of modernity, futurity, and personhood among Khasi village-folk. These discussions threw new light on the research previously conducted in Shillong and enabled a reframing of problems as had been articulated by more educated and well-to-do people. Consequently, it facilitated a sharpening of research questions and a fresh approach to the same theoretical problems encountered in the city. The research also followed relatives of people from the village, who now live in Shillong, in order to track their continued, yet somewhat realigned kinship relations and responsibilities (in all their gendered dimensions). It highlighted an interesting urban-rural schism with the 'nongkyndongs' (Khasi for 'villagers' or 'country bumpkins') both reflecting on what they felt was a false divide created by urbanites but also simultaneously owning their difference and purported lack of class and cultural capital in the name of something more genuinely Khasi.
Salas Landa, Monica Mariella, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Touring their Ruins: The Ethnic Industry in Tajín Totonac, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Magnus M. Fiskesjo
MONICA M. SALAS LANDA, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'Touring Their Ruins: The Ethnic Industry in Tajín Totonac, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Magnus M. Fiskesjo. This dissertation examines the afterlife of documents, artifacts, industrial and monumental structures, substances, and smells that resulted from the post-revolutionary process of state formation in the northern highlands of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Combining an archival approach with ethnographic research, the study analyzes the ways in which these remnants -- and the effects, desires, fears, and expectations, they generate -- continue to shape the political experience of those who confront, in the everyday, these residues of violence and revolution. Funding supported twelve months of research in Mexico (ethnographic and archival) and the United States (archival) during 2012-2013. Evidence collected served two purposes: 1) to analyze the ways in which post-revolutionary projects of state formation -- namely indigenismo, land redistribution, and oil expropriation -- worked out in northern Vera Cruz; and 2) to provide an analysis of the everyday encounters that people in this region have with these visible and invisible forms of state debris.
Klopp, Emily Bernice, Northwestern U., Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea
EMILY KLOPP, then a student at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, received funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Primate Sexual Dimorphism and Display: Intraspecific Scaling of Craniofacial Features in Male Cercopithecoids,' supervised by Dr. Brian T. Shea. The project provides a first and very important test of the theoretical predictions of recent sexual selection models in the socially complex higher primates. The hypothesis predicts that the canine tooth and several bony facial features exhibit intraspecific positive allometry across adult males within each of various highly dimorphic papionin species. Positive allometric scaling for adult males is functionally based in the potential role of sexually dimorphic craniofacial features in 'advertising' or signaling overall male size and fitness to both females and/or other adult male conspecifics. Initial analysis shows the null hypothesis to be supported in Macacafascicularis, Papio anubis/cynocephalus, and Hylobates lar lar but not in Cercopithecus aethiops. Additional analysis on papionin species using accurate size surrogates is forthcoming. This project departs from almost all previous studies of sexual dimorphism in papionins and other primates by focusing solely on male variance and scaling within species, and by testing a specific hypothesized functional explanation for an allometric trajectory.
Klopp, Emily B. 2012. Craniodental Features in Male Mandrillus May Signal Size and Fitness: An Allometric Approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(4):593-603.
Liebert, Melissa Ann, U. of Oregon, Eugene, OR - To aid research on 'Psychosocial Stress and Culture Change among Indigenous Amazonian Shuar: Integrating Developmental, Biological, and Cognitive Perspectives,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence S. Sugiyama
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
Recent studies among indigenous populations suggest that psychosocial stress is an important pathway through which socioecological changes associated with market integration (MI) shape human biology. Surprisingly, however, little research has systematically investigated this topic. In particular, few studies have examined how factors associated with MI influence children's perceptions of the shifting cultural milieu and how these experiences become biologically embodied to impact stress, life history trade-offs, and health. Given that early life stress can induce enduring physiological dysregulation across multiple systems, research is greatly needed to capture the nuances of MI that affect developmental stress and long-term health.
To address these issues, this project will integrate methods from biological and cognitive anthropology with rich ethnographic data on culture change and perceptions of lifestyle success in order to elucidate how MI affects stress physiology and life history patterns among Indigenous Shuar children of Amazonian Ecuador. This study will examine these relationships among 200 children and adolescents from two communities experiencing varying degrees of MI by measuring two biomarker indices of psychosocial stress [diurnal cortisol profiles and allostatic load (including measures of cortisol, Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, C-reactive protein, and growth)], cognitive models of lifestyle success, and lifestyle data indicative of MI exposure.
Eisenberg, Daniel Thomas Abraham, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Ecological Predictors of Telomere Lengths: A Longitudinal and Cross-population Analysis of Human Biological Diversity,' supervised by Dr. Christopher W. Kuzawa
DAN EISENBERG, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received a grant in May 2010 to research on 'Ecological Predictors of Telomere Lengths: a Longitudinal and Cross-Population Analysis of Human Biological Diversity,' supervised by Dr. Christopher Kuzawa . Telomeres are DNA sequences at chromosome ends that shorten with age and are required for proper cell division. Telomere shortening is associated with diminished cell proliferation capacity, which is believed to be a cause of senescence. Given the importance of cell proliferation to blood telomere length (BTL), it has been hypothesized that BTL reflects previous immune system activation and indicates current immune function. Thus BTL could provide a new biomarker of life history allocations and of developmental exposures to infection. Contrary to the shortening of BTL that occurs with age, previous studies have shown that children of older fathers have longer telomeres. By analyzing BTL data from the Philippines, Eisenberg and colleagues showed for the first time that this happens across at least two generations: older fathers not only have offspring with longer telomeres, but their sons also have offspring with longer telomeres. Analyses of how early life infection and growth predicts later BTL are ongoing.
Eisenberg, Dan. 2012. Delayed Paternal Age of Reproduction in Humans is Associated with Longer Telomeres across Two Generations of Descendants. PNAS Early Edition (published online).
Ramadan-Santiago, Omar F.M. City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Performing the Third Race: Rastafari Ideology and the Racial Imagination in Puerto Rico,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan Shannon
Preliminary abstract: I am proposing to examine the religious construction of race with a focus on the Puerto Rican Rastafari community. My research will examine the processes of 'constructing' and 'becoming' racialized subjects, and 'performing' these subjectivities among Puerto Rican Rastafaris. I ask what role does religion play in constructing and performing race. I will examine a community that opts for a stigmatized racialization; my research explores how this decision is informed by religious ideology and how their racialized Rastafari identity is performed.
Wood, Brian Madison, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Male Food Production, Transfers, and Household Provisioning among Hadza Hunter-Gatherers,' supervised by Dr. Frank Marlowe
BRIAN M. WOOD, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Male Food Production, Transfers, and Household Provisioning among Hadza Hunter-Gatherers,' supervised by Dr. Frank Marlowe. This research among Hadza hunter-gatherers of northern Tanzania indicates that, contrary to earlier reports using less comprehensive and precise data, men distribute the foods they acquire in ways that differentially benefit their own households. This claim is based upon measures of the distribution of 202 male-acquired foods, including 33 large game, 53 small game, 19 loads of fruit, and 97 loads of honey. Across all resource classes, the acquirer's household typically retains shares much larger than those received by other households. The average share of fruit kept by an acquirer's household is 9.3 times larger than average shares given to other households. This producer advantage is 2.4, 1.9, and 4.7 in the case of large game, small game, and honey, respectively. These data refute key aspects of the costly signaling hypothesis as it has been applied in several studies of Hadza male foraging.
Jaroka, Livia, U. College of London, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Ethnic Relations and the Management of Everyday Life among Hungarian-Speaking Urban Roma in Postcommunist Hungary,' supervised by Dr. Michael S. Stewart
LIVIA JAROKA, while a student at University College of London in London, England, received funding in January 2002 to aid research on ethnic relations and the management of everyday life among Hungarian-speaking urban Roma in post-communist Hungary, under the supervision of Dr. Michael S. Stewart. Jaroka's fieldwork was focused on Roma living in the Jozsefvaros, an area in the Eighth District of Budapest. Data were gathered on Roma social organization, status, and experiences of and responses to social, cultural, economic, political, and human rights conditions since the political-system change in 1989. Special emphasis was placed on factors encouraging or discouraging assimilation or the continued classification of others as Roma. The data showed how the Roma-most of whom had lost economic security after the change of the political system-had failed to be absorbed into Hungarian society, mainly because the non-Roma population appeared to accept unrealistic, exotic stereotypes of Roma and to be unwilling to accept the integration attempts of aspiring Roma. The everyday experiences of informants showed that integration attempts were rejected by majority Hungarians even while the Roma were constantly blamed for 'not being able and willing to integrate.' The discriminative attitude among the majority was the main reason for seeking assimilation, yet many Roma, especially younger people, chose a more nationalistic Roma attitude, often antagonistic to non-Roma.
Blair, James Joseph Allen, City U. of New York, Hunter College, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Extracting Indigeneity: Self-Determination and Energy in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas),' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
PROVIDE A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF YOUR PROJECT IN PLAIN ENGLISH (UNFORMATTED -- WITHOUT BULLETS OR NUMBERED LISTS -- 200 WORD MAXIMUM).
This ethnographic and historical project examines how the British settlers of the Falkland Islands (In Spanish, Malvinas) are constructing themselves as natives, as they stake their claim to energy resources. Thirty years after the 1982 military conflict that cemented the South Atlantic archipelago's British status, oil has been discovered near the islands, and Argentina has renewed its sovereignty claim. In response, the islands' settlers held a March 2013 referendum on the right to self-determination in which 99.8% voted 'Yes' to remaining British. Unlike colonies where native peoples have claimed self-determination to restore sovereignty, no precolonial population inhabited the islands, nor do descendants today. To understand how the settlers are reinventing themselves as natives with resource rights, this project examines: (1) how they are packaging self-determination as a sign of stability for oil partners; (2) to what extents debates around infrastructure are forming new local power relations; and (3) how the dispute orients experts assessing environmental impact. Research incorporates observations and interviews with multiple stakeholders, including: government officials, oil executives, scientists, migrants, townspeople and shepherds. With analysis of colonial reports, the project considers how the present moment of oil development is an outcome of historical relations of resource governance.