Salas Landa, Monica Mariella, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Touring their Ruins: The Ethnic Industry in Tajín Totonac, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Magnus M. Fiskesjo
MONICA M. SALAS LANDA, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, was awarded a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'Touring Their Ruins: The Ethnic Industry in Tajín Totonac, Mexico,' supervised by Dr. Magnus M. Fiskesjo. This dissertation examines the afterlife of documents, artifacts, industrial and monumental structures, substances, and smells that resulted from the post-revolutionary process of state formation in the northern highlands of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Combining an archival approach with ethnographic research, the study analyzes the ways in which these remnants -- and the effects, desires, fears, and expectations, they generate -- continue to shape the political experience of those who confront, in the everyday, these residues of violence and revolution. Funding supported twelve months of research in Mexico (ethnographic and archival) and the United States (archival) during 2012-2013. Evidence collected served two purposes: 1) to analyze the ways in which post-revolutionary projects of state formation -- namely indigenismo, land redistribution, and oil expropriation -- worked out in northern Vera Cruz; and 2) to provide an analysis of the everyday encounters that people in this region have with these visible and invisible forms of state debris.
Li, Min, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Conquest, Concord, and Consumption: Becoming Shang in East China,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopli
MIN LI, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in January 2005 to aid research on 'Conquest, Concord, and Consumption: Becoming Shang in East China,' supervised by Dr. Carla M. Sinopli. The grantee's archaeological research at the site of Daxinzhuang (30 ha) investigated the social and cultural transformations during the mid and late Shang period in the Jinan region. Recent excavations at this important mid Shang settlement in eastern China revealed a rapid expansion of the Shang state into this culturally diverse region. Stylistic and technological differences in material culture reveal that changes in social relations resulting from Shang conquest were probably construed and demarcated along existing lines of cultural difference in the community. With a dissertation fieldwork grant (7261) from the Wenner-Gren Foundation, Li Min conducted excavation at the site in collaboration with archaeologists from the Shandong University and the Jinan City Institute of Archaeology. The excavation uncovered a dozen large pit features filled with residential debris from the Mid-Shang period residents, as well as evidence for human and animal sacrifice resulting from ritual activities. The excavation was followed by analysis of ceramics and animal bones from context of food consumption and ritual activities. As animals had symbolic and economic importance in the Shang world, the research on patterned variation animal remains in diverse archaeological context informs on status difference, economic condition, and cultural identity at the local society.
Ramadan-Santiago, Omar F.M. City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Performing the Third Race: Rastafari Ideology and the Racial Imagination in Puerto Rico,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan Shannon
Preliminary abstract: I am proposing to examine the religious construction of race with a focus on the Puerto Rican Rastafari community. My research will examine the processes of 'constructing' and 'becoming' racialized subjects, and 'performing' these subjectivities among Puerto Rican Rastafaris. I ask what role does religion play in constructing and performing race. I will examine a community that opts for a stigmatized racialization; my research explores how this decision is informed by religious ideology and how their racialized Rastafari identity is performed.
Kisin, Eugenia Carol, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Indigenous Sovereignties, Non-secular Modernities: The Market for Northwest Coast First Nations Art,' supervised by Dr. Fred R. Myers
EUGENIA C. KISIN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Indigenous Sovereignties, Non-Secular Modernities: The Market for Northwest Coast First Nations Art,' supervised by Dr. Fred R. Myers. Indigenous social movements have had long histories in settler states. But in recent decades, a new cultural politics has emerged that hinges on expressive culture -- art, music, and performance -- to assert sovereignty and contemporaneity. Within these movements, indigenous peoples have complex affiliations in relation to the commodity market, including community, pan-indigenous, religious, and professional identities. This project documents how contemporary indigenous cultural politics emerge around art, focusing on how the state, the art market, and religiosities are entangled with projects of indigenous self-determination in Vancouver, Canada. Exploring the ways in which First Nations artists take up the fluid categories of contemporary art while challenging modernist and secularist models of art's efficacies, this research shows how participants in this regional art world imagine new ways for aesthetics and politics to comingle in Indigenous practice, often amidst extractive state regimes. Through participant observation, life histories, social network analyses, and archival work in the many spaces of the art world, this research explores how the politics, discourses, and processes of contemporary First Nations art production have led to a $100 million market for Northwest Coast art, and how, on this market, cultural and monetary values are powerfully interlinked.
Harris, Tara, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'The Functions of Roaring and Intergroup Aggression in Black and White Colobus Monkeys (*Colobus guereza*),' supervised by Dr. David P. Watts
TARA HARRIS, while a student at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, was awarded a grant in January 2003 to aid research on the functions of roaring and intergroup aggression in black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza, 'guerezas') in Kenya, under the supervision of Dr. David P. Watts. Adult male guerezas regularly engage in intergroup aggression and roar choruses, two potentially related behaviors. Previous research had shown that male guerezas in Kenya used intergroup aggression to defend mates but also to defend the food resources that females needed. This latter finding challenged current primate socioecological theory. In this project, Harris investigated whether male resource defense also occurred in a habitat in which guerezas' preferred food was presumably less defensible and whether roaring by males was related to mate defense, resource defense, or both. Roars might also be related to intergroup aggression, because their acoustic frequencies provide honest information about callers' body sizes. Harris investigated whether the outcomes of intergroup encounters could be predicted from body size information encoded in males' roars. The research was conducted at the Kanyawara field site in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Data on roaring, intergroup aggression, ranging, activity, grooming, approaches, diet, and mating behavior were collected between July 2002 and October 2003 for six groups of guerezas with overlapping home ranges. Morning chorus roars were digitally recorded, and urine from potentially fertile females was collected. Roars were subjected to spectrographic and formant analysis. Urine samples were assayed for progesterone and estrogen metabolites, in order to determine ovulation dates and thus test the mate defense hypothesis.
Paschetta, Carolina Andrea, U. Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Puerto Madryn, Argentina - To aid research on 'Dietary Shifts During Modem Human Evolution and their Effect on Craniofacial Size and Shape,' supervised by Dr. Rolando Gonzalez-Jose
Preliminary abstract: The craniofacial phenotype can suffer changes promoted by epigenetic or environmental factors. Among them, masticatory mechanical stress is perhaps one of the most important epigenetic stimuli which acted during the recent evolution of our species. In particular, technological transition from hunting-gathering is invoked to be concomitant with a significant reduction of masticatory stress. The main objective is quantify the differences in modern human samples with different economic strategies (hunter/gatherers, farmers, etc.), not only in the overall skull morphology, as well as in localized structures, in order to detect common, recurrent changes in craniofacial size and shape due to environmental stimuli. A geometric morphometrics techniques will be used to track these changes on at least three cases of economic transitions on New World populations. Changes observed in concomitance on all the transitions will be, in consequence, postulated as good candidates of plastic structures which probably promoted rapid evolution of modern humans across different adaptive (dietary, nutritional) shifts.
Whitten, Margarete Jean, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Decentralizing Compassion: Biomedical Politics of Ethics and Life in US Community Health,' supervised by Dr. Dana Ain Davis
Preliminary abstract: The Affordable Care Act is predicted to spur a decentralization of hospitals in the United States, stimulating the growth of localized community health centers and services to accommodate 32 million formerly uninsured people. In the absence of universal health care, how is the responsibility to care for vulnerable populations directed and organized? How has the connection between structural inequality and suffering in vulnerable populations been elided and reconstrued as incidental, blameless and random? How does an ethical commitment to compassion undermine or support the 'right' to access care? My research will address these questions by studying the work of community health nurses in Massachusetts, the state that has served as the model for national reform, to map expanding and increasingly localized networks of care that explicitly target vulnerable populations. I will investigate (1) how the increasing authority, autonomy, and scope of practice of community health nurses enable them to redefine the administration and justification of care; and (2) how nurses use new health information technologies to legitimize an expanded notion of care and to redefine their obligations and responsibilities as care providers. I will collect data through a combination of participant observation in three community health sites, an analysis of bureaucratic document production in the use of health information technologies and materials, and oral history with nurses who have worked in multiple clinical paradigms through generations of reform. I hypothesize that increasing the influence of community health nurses will enable an activation of professional caring ethics to reimagine the role of medicine to shape the quality of life of vulnerable populations in an unstable neoliberal moment.
Cook, Ian Michael, Central European U., Budapest, Hungary - To aid research on 'The City as a River: A Rhythmanalysis of Mangalore,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Monterescu
IAN M. COOK, then a student at Central European University, Budapest, Hungary, received a grant in October 2012 to aid research on 'The City as a River: A Rhythmanalysis of Mangalore,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Monterescu. This project proposes a novel approach to the anthropology of time and space through a relational inquiry into the practical rhythms of urban life -- rhythms that mediate and constitute realities in urban India. The research folds class and power into urban spaces and times by embedding the inquiry in everyday life. India's ongoing rapid urbanization, in part linked to the economic liberalization begun in the mid-1980s, is producing a multitude of overlapping rhythms that open up both possibilities and constraints for urban dwellers across the country. The proposed research examines how the river-like rhythms 'dress' a city's inhabitants and, in doing so, increase and diminish opportunities to exercise 'urban agency.' The research argues that the (in)ability to harness the city's rhythms, which leads to greater and lesser degrees of urban-agency, rests upon certain combinations of repetition and difference. Research was conducted amongst moving vendors, auto rickshaw drivers, and housing agents. These groups are a means through which to understand the city more generally -- though necessarily partially -- from the bottom up; to explore how their many different rhythms combine and contrast with the wider rhythms of the city.
James, Carwil Robert, City U. of New York, Graduate Center, New York, NY - To aid research on 'Claiming Space, Redefining Politics: Urban Protest and Grassroots Power in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman
CARWIL R. JAMES, then a student at the City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, New York, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Claiming Space, Redefining Politics: urban Protest and Grassroots Power in Bolivia,' supervised by Dr. Marc Edelman. This dissertation analyzes the role of space-claiming protests by primarily indigenous-identified social movements in Bolivia's current political transformation. Participatory fieldwork, oral history taking, and documentary research undergird a rich historical examination of the politics urban spaces in Sucre and Cochabamba, two politically active, multiracial cities with contrasting histories of indigenous-mestizo relations. Space claiming includes protests that physically control or symbolically claim urban space through occupations of plazas and roads, sit-ins, and blockades; as well as the use, re-appropriation, and redesigning of state spaces, as authorized by the post-2006 government. This dissertation argues that social movements' appropriation of Bolivia's central physical, political, and symbolic spaces both justifies and embodies the political changes they demand. In particular, indigenous movements have sought to claim the right to enter and direct politics from the central urban spaces that once excluded them, provoking literal and figurative battles over ownership of the city and its streets. The research shows that space-claiming practices function as: 1) a tool for achieving political change in Bolivia; 2) a model for the relationship between state and society; and 3) a central element in ongoing political conflicts.
Golitko, Mark Louis, U. of Illinois, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Chemical Characterization of Linienbandkeramik (LBK) Ceramics by ICP-MS,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley
MARK LOUIS GOLITKO, then a student at University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Chemical Characterization of Linienbandkeramik (LBK) Ceramics by ICP-MS,' supervised by Dr. Lawrence Harold Keeley. Funding was utilized to collect Linienbandkeramik (LBK) culture (c. 5200 BC) ceramic samples housed at the Institut Royal de Sciences Naturelles in Brussels, Belgium during July/August of 2006, which were chemically and petrographically analyzed during 2006-2007 at the Field Museum Laboratory for Archaeogeochemistry to determine their production region. LBK villages founded in the Hesbaye region of Belgium exhibit village level production specialization that Keeley and Cahen have argued served to maintain military alliances along an expanding frontier of farming-there may have been two such networks, corresponding to different stream valleys, which traded in different axe raw materials. During initial settlement of the region, there is little evidence of conflict, while during later settlement there is both evidence of conflict in the form of fortifications, and evidence that production specialization was the norm. While analysis is ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the region became generally more economically integrated as conflict increased, and that the patterns evident in other forms of material culture are not mirrored by ceramic trade. In particular, one village received almost all its ceramics from villages it was hypothesized to have been conflict with. This suggests that models of trade in the region must be reformulated.