Smith, Carolyn A.

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
California, Berkeley, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
April 9, 2013
Project Title: 
Smith, Carolyn, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Weaving pikyav(to-fix-it): Karuk Basket Weaving Practice in-Relation to the Everyday World,' supervised by Dr. Rosemary Joyce

Preliminary abstract: This project requests funding to research archival resources and museum collections pertaining to the Karuk Tribe of California's basket weaving practices, as well as to conduct interviews with Karuk basket weavers, descendants of weavers, and employees of the Karuk Department of Natural Resources. Anthropology has long engaged with Native American craftworks and this project will build on prior work by considering the configurations of social identity produced through practice in everyday life. Data produced will address questions regarding historical and contemporary relations between people and land: how do Karuk basket makers constitute social identity through the making and circulation of baskets? In what ways do these practices support the formation of connection to place? How does recontextualization of museum collections through linking objects with archival resources help us understand how objects can constitute social identities? In order to examine the relations of basket weaving with the broader issues of traditional ecological knowledge and its relation to natural resource management; the circulation of objects within and outside source communities; and the implications of considering objects as agentive; this project explores Karuk epistemology and ontology. The research will significantly contribute to museum anthropology, theories of materiality, and engagements with indigenous methodologies.

Grant Year: 
2013
Award Amount: 
$19,850

McCabe, Collin Michael

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Harvard U.
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
May 1, 2014
Project Title: 
McCabe, Collin Michael, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Unwelcome Guests: Human-rodent Cohabitation and its Implications for Disease Transfer in Sedentary Agricultural Populations,' supervised by Dr. Richard Wrangham

Preliminary abstract: Rodents have inhabited human settlements since at least the advent of agriculture and sedentary lifestyles. This close contact between humans and rodents has been, and still is, a source of many emerging zoonotic diseases. However, little is known about what drives species to commensal lifestyles, and even less is known about whether these commensal species are more likely than non-commensal rodents to carry novel zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study is to investigate certain behavioral and ecological factors that favor commensal living and pathogen burdens in East African rodents. I hypothesize that more exploratory rodent species with broader diets will more likely be commensal, and will likely have higher pathogen burdens. I plan to live-trap rodents in central Kenya from a community of 25 wild species, in both recently settled human agricultural villages and adjacent, undisturbed habitats to determine each species' level of commensality and the features of these wild rodents that favor commensal living. I will also obtain biological samples from these rodents to determine the zoonotic pathogen burdens. By enriching knowledge of rodent disease ecology, this project will provide data to hone or even transform our understanding of selective pressures of zoonotic pathogens on early agriculturalists.

Grant Year: 
2014
Award Amount: 
$15,681

Kattan, Shlomy

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
California, Berkeley, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
April 27, 2006
Project Title: 
Kattan, Shlomy, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid 'Language Socialization and Language Ideologies among Israeli Emissaries: A Global Ethnography of Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Sahara Patricia Baquedano-Lopez

SHLOMY KATTAN, then a student at University of California, Berkeley, California, received funding in April 2006 to aid research on 'Language Socialization and Language ideologies among Israeli Emissaries: A Global Ethnography of Transnationalism,' supervised by Dr. Sahara Patricia Baquedano-Lopez. This multi-sited ethnography examines language socialization, linguistic ideologies, and identity practices amongst families of Israeli emissaries and their young children, following their transition from Israel, through their residence in New York, and until their return to Israel after two years. During the first funded year of research, observations, interviews, and audio and video recording have been carried out in both countries at home and in school. In-home observations capture the methods used to socialize children to being bilingual, record family conversations about Israel and New York, and document changes in participants' language use. In-school observations document changes ininteractional practices between the focal children, their teachers, and peers. Observations document how focal children enter into and form social groups, how they negotiate their position as language learners and as non-locals, and how they utilize their changing linguistic skills. The data provide empirical support that the transition and socialization of the children are negotiated across sites, and illustrate how such negotiations take place across the sites. Socialization practices are not positivistic or objective, but rather derive rom participants' changing ideologies vis-à-vis children's abilities in English and Hebrew, as well as their perceptions of the children's fluctuating needs in those languages.

Grant Year: 
2006
Award Amount: 
$23,343

Sandberg, Paul Adams

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Colorado, Boulder, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 4, 2010
Project Title: 
Sandberg, Paul Adams, U. of Colorado, Boulder, CO - To aid research on 'High Resolution Reconstruction of Early Life History Events in Archaeological Humans: A Biogeochemical Approach,' supervised by Dr. Matt Sponheimer

PAUL A. SANDBERG, then a student at University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, was awarded funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'High Resolution Reconstruction of Early Life History Events in Archaeological Humans: A Biogeochemical Approach,' supervised by Dr. Matt Sponheimer. There has been increasing interest in reconstructing aspects of human life history in the past using stable isotope analysis of bones and teeth. This has most commonly been accomplished by measuring stable isotope ratios in the bone collagen of individuals at various ages of death, or by comparing the stable isotopes in the enamel of teeth that form at different times. While useful, the temporal resolution of these methods is rather coarse grained. A relatively new method of measuring stable isotopes in tooth enamel -- laser ablation / gas chromatography / isotope ratio mass spectrometry -- permits the analysis of very small amounts of enamel in situ and creates the opportunity to generate high-resolution stable isotope profiles within single human teeth. The goal of this project is to use this method to greatly improve the temporal resolution of infant and childhood diet, and dietary changes associated with the weaning process and seasonality. A variety of methodological issues were addressed including sampling location within dental enamel and the comparability of isotope profiles in different tooth types and dental tissues. High resolution intratooth stable isotope analysis holds promise for addressing a number of questions concerning human life history in the archaeological and fossil records.

Grant Year: 
2010
Award Amount: 
$14,778

Fleming, Luke O.

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Pennsylvania, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 19, 2005
Project Title: 
Fleming, Luke O., U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'Linguistic Exogamy and Ethnonationalism among Urban Indigenous Immigrants in Northwest Amazonia,' supervised by Dr. Greg P. Urban

LUKE FLEMING, then a student at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, received funding in May 2005 to aid research on 'Linguistic Exogamy and Ethnonationalism among Urban Indigenous Immigrants in Northwest Amazonia,' supervised by Dr. Greg P. Urban. Classical anthropological theory -- from Morgan and Malinowski onwards -- has understood kinship as the organization center of small-scale societies. While kinship sometimes serves metaphorically as a means of conceptualizing 'modern' social identities and relations, it is rarely seen as the dominant institution underpinning them. On the contrary, modernity seems to eschew kinship -- which orders society through face-to-face relations of alliance and descent -- and instead embraces symbolically mediated, often anonymous, processes of group formation. This research project takes a very well studied pattern of exogamy characteristic of the Northwest Amazon and documents the manner through which the migration of indigenous peoples transposed this pattern onto an urban locale, where state and non-state institutions impinge upon ties of kinship, creating competing valorizations of personhood and modes of belonging in social groups. The study maps out the manner in which forms of indigenous personhood come to be decoupled from relations of kinship through: 1.) educational, governmental, and religious institutions; 2.) culture-contact interactions between non-indigenous Brazilians and indigenous peoples; 3.) different indigenous groups brought into contact through migration; 4.) relations between the genders refashioned through urbanization; and 5.) the changing relations between young and old.

Grant Year: 
2005
Award Amount: 
$15,280

Listman, Jennifer Beth

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
New York U.
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 20, 2006
Project Title: 
Listman, Jennifer Beth, New York U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Genetic Marker Bias Effects on Inferences of Human Evolutionary History,' supervised by Dr. Todd Richard Disotell

JENNIFER LISTMAN, then a student at New York University, New York, New York, was awarded funding in October 2006 to aid research on 'Genetic Marker Bias Effects on Inferences of Human Evolutionary History,' supervised by Dr. Todd Disotell. Saliva samples were collected from individuals from five ethnic minorities (Akha, Lisu, Lahu, Hmong, and Karen), commonly referred to as Hill Tribes, residing in Northern Thailand. DNA from these samples -- as well as from European American, African American, Thai, and Chinese populations, which were already available -- was used to collect population genetic data based on 32 unlinked autosomal microsatellite markers. Evaluation of these data describe genetic variation within and between these populations and show that the amount and type of information provided by microsatellite markers is, in part, related to the histories of the populations under study. The results demonstrate a lack of Asian intracontinental genetic homogeneity detectable with relatively few markers. The results indicate that forensic panels -- which consist of tetranucleotide markers, possibly due to homoplasy -- are not reliable for phylogenetic analysis of human populations. Hmong were found to be the most genetically distinct of the Hill Tribes and are the most linguistically distinct of all the Asian populations sampled as well as the most traditionally resistant to assimilation. Their linguistic and behavioral barriers are effectively influencing mating behavior and thus, genetic distance between Hmong and their neighbors.

Publication credit:

Listman, J.B., R.T. Malison, K. Sanichwankul, et al. 2010. Southeast Asian Origins of Five Hill Tribe Populations and Correlation of Genetic to Linguistic Relationships Inferred with Genome-wide SNP Data. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144(2):300-308.

Grant Year: 
2006
Award Amount: 
$9,860

Huang, Yu

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Washington, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
October 30, 2007
Project Title: 
Huang, Yu, U. of Washington, Seattle, WA - To aid research on 'Cultivating 'Science-Savvy' Citizens: Empowerment and Risk in Shrimp Aquaculture Development in China,' supervised by Dr. Ann Anagnost

YU HUANG, then a student at University of Washington, Seattle Washington, received funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'Cultivating 'Science-Savvy' Citizens: Empowerment and Risk in Shrimp Aquaculture Development in China,' supervised by Dr. Ann Anagnost. This research seeks to investigate how, in the context of China's economic reforms, aquaculture has become a site where the state engineers new forms of citizenship to fit the demands of the global economy, and how new forms of subjectivity around empowerment and risk emerge in tension with state projects. While slogans of 'scientific aquaculture' hailed farmers' pursuit of unprecedented high-yields in the 1990s, recently, the focus of science extension has shifted to the promotion of 'healthy aquaculture.' This research traces how scientific aquaculture was produced 'in action' as a result of friction between the state's neoliberal policies, scientists' social aspirations, and farmers' conceptualization of risks. Research sites include stationary sites such as a village dominated by small family farms and a large state-owned collective farm, as well as mobile sites such as science extension activities including fish veterinary training workshops and food safety inspection trips. In addition, the researcher rented a shrimp farm to conduct experimental shrimp farming. Evidence from this project will not only help facilitate more conversations between fishery managers and shrimp farmers, but it will collaborate with both experts and lay people to speculate on the possibilities of new forms of agency in a globalized economy.

Grant Year: 
2007
Award Amount: 
$21,871

Raucher, Michal Soffer

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Northwestern U.
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 4, 2010
Project Title: 
Raucher, Michal Soffer, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'A Womb of One's Own? How Jewish Women Know What to Expect When They are Expecting,' supervised by Dr. Helen B. Schwartzman

MICHAL SOFFER RAUCHER, then a student at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, received funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'A Womb of One's Own? How Jewish Woman Know What to Expect When They Are Expecting,' supervised by Dr. Helen B. Schwartzman. This research was based on the hypothesis that given the prominent cultural and religious rejection of fetal personhood by Haredi (ultra-Orthodox Jewish) women in Jerusalem, anthropological theories on the effect of fetal ultrasound on personification did not apply. This project sets out to unravel the relationship between medicine, religion, and the individual in Israeli prenatal care. The phase of research supported by Wenner-Gren resulted in the collection of interviews with doctors, nurses, midwives, and doulas (labor-coaches) who work with Haredi women in Jerusalem. This phase also included extensive observations in a Haredi prenatal clinic and in the fetal ultrasound department of a major hospital in Jerusalem. Furthermore, the researcher spent a year observing the daily operations at the Jewish pro-life organization in Jerusalem. Findings from this phase of research highlight the ways in which doctors and rabbis act in concert in order to control the prenatal experiences of Haredi women; however, bolstered by their embodied experiences of pregnancy and the value given to their reproductive capabilities by the religious culture, Haredi women manipulate this system of control in order to conform to their requests and desires regarding prenatal medical care.

Grant Year: 
2010
Award Amount: 
$12,995

Brown, Scott

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
New School U.
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 7, 2014
Project Title: 
Brown, Scott, New School U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Prototyping the Social? An Ethnography of 'Social Innovation' Design Practice,' supervised by Dr. Hugh Raffles

Preliminary abstract: In recent years, the field of design has been undergoing a significant shift. In addition to its traditional focus on creating specific objects such as buildings, clothes and interfaces, designers are increasingly addressing a wider range of material,social and political problems by designing social systems and processes. Hired by governments, NGOs and corporations alike, designers today are working to solve issues ranging from healthcare service delivery to enhancing relationships between citizens and the state. This project investigates the forms of knowledge and practice that constitute the work of this new generation of 'social innovation' design. It will investigate how these designers are rendering social and political complexity into 'design problems' that have specific solutions, as well as how are they being trained to do so. In seeking answers to these questions, this research will consist of twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork in the New York City area at various design firms and schools. Situated within the spaces of everyday design practice - the studios, labs, consultancies and training institutes- this project seeks to understand this emergent community of expertise by attending to the everyday habits, practices, ideas and common sensibilities of which constitute the work of 'social innovation' designers.

Grant Year: 
2014
Award Amount: 
$19,793

Ditto, Emily Cubbon

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 16, 2012
Project Title: 
Ditto, Emily Cubbon, U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Cosmological Caches: Organization and Power at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (A.D. 850-1150),' supervised by Dr. Vincas P. Steponaitis

Preliminary abstract: My dissertation focuses on Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, where clear indications of social differentiation in the Pueblo world first appeared during the 9th-11th centuries. Though research has been conducted since 1896, many central questions, such as the distinct nature of Chacoan organization and leadership, have been difficult to solve. Recently, many scholars have argued convincingly for strong ritual components. One key question concerns the roles of dual organization (moieties) and ritual sodalities (non-kin groups). Current evidence for dualism is biological and architectural. Artifacts, especially details regarding their contexts, and what they reveal about ritual and power, have been underemphasized in recent Chaco research. In addition, two conspicuously elaborate groups of burials found in Pueblo Bonito (the largest great house, in the canyon center) are often cited as the most unmistakable evidence for Chacoan social differentiation. Despite their widely recognized importance and potential to address difficulties understanding the roles of Chacoan leaders, no systematic study of artifact distributions relative to skeletal remains has been conducted. My research will use artifacts to investigate whether dualism was represented in Chacoan organization by analyzing patterns of variation among ritual caches and comparing the contents and symbolic associations of the two Pueblo Bonito burial assemblages.

Grant Year: 
2012
Award Amount: 
$18,345
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