Sherwood, Chet C., Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Neural Mechanisms of Primate Communication: A Comparative Study of Facial and Hypoglossal Nuclei,' supervised by Dr. Ralph L. Holloway
CHET C. SHERWOOD, while a student at Columbia University in New York, New York, received funding in July 2001 to aid research on neural mechanisms of primate communication, under the supervision of Dr. Ralph L. Holloway. Many of primate species' diverse communication strategies entail skilled motor control of orofacial muscles for the production of facial expressions, vocalizations, and, in humans, speech. Sherwood investigated possible neural substrates of species-specific modes of communication by using comparative, quantitative histological methods to study the brain regions centrally involved in orofacial motor control: the trigeminal motor nucleus, the facial nucleus, the hypoglossal nucleus of the brain stem, and the primary motor cortex. Analyses of allometric scaling and phylogenetic independent contrasts were used to test for anatomical specializations of the orofacial motor nuclei. Results showed that several of their structural features, including nucleus volume, neuron number, and neuropil space, were highly correlated with medulla and brain volume. There was little evidence that interspecific variation in the cytoarchitectural organization of these motor nuclei reflected specialization for facial expression or human speech. In contrast, the microstructure of the primary motor cortex exhibited several phylogenetic differences. Compared with the primary motor cortexes of the Old World monkeys examined, those of great apes and humans were characterized by increased thickness of superficial cortical layers, decreased neuron packing density, and increased proportions of subsets of pyramidal neurons enriched in neurofilament protein and certain inhibitory interneuron subtypes. These modifications of the primary motor cortex may underlie the enhanced mobility and voluntary control of orofacial muscles in the facial expressions of great apes and humans.
Sherwood, Chet, P. Hof, R. Holloway, K. Semendeferi, P. Gannon, H. Frahm, and K. Zilles. 2005. Evolution of the Brainstem Orofacial Motor System in Primates: a Comparative Study of Trigeminal, Facial, and Hypoglossal Nuclei. Journal of Human Evolution 48:45-84.
Sherwood, Chet C., Mary Ann Raghanti, and Jeffrey J. Wenstrup. 2005. Is Humanlike Cytoarchitectural Asymmetry Present in another Species with Complex Social Vocalization? A Stereologic Analysis of Mustached Bat Auditory Cortex. Brain Research 1045:164-174.
Sherwood, Chet C. 2005. Comparative Anatomy of the Facial Motor Nucleus in Mammals, With an Analysis of Neuron Numbers in Primates. The Anatomical Record 287(A):1067-1079.
Sherwood, Chet C., and Kimberly Phillips. 2005. Primary Motor Cortex Asymmetry is Correlated with Handedness in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus paella). Behavioral Neuroscience 119(6):1701-1704.
Sherwood, Chet C., and Patrick R. Hof. 2005. Morphomolecular Neuronal Penotypes in the Neocortex Reflect Phylogenetic Relationships among Certain Mammalian Orders. The Anatomical Record 287(A):1153-1163.
Sherwood, Chet. C., et al. 2006. Evolution of Increased Glia-Meuron Ratios in the Human Frontal Cortex. PNAS
2006, Vol. 103, No. 37.
Sherwood, Chet C., Mary Ann Raghanti, Cheryl D. Stimpson, et al. 2007. Scaling of Inhibitory Interneurons in Areas V1 and V2 of Anthropoid Primates as Revealed by Calcium-Binding Protein Immunohistochemistry. Brain, Behavior and
Sherwood, Chet, Kimberley Phillips and Alayna Lilak. 2007. Corpus Collosum Morphology in Capuchin Monkeys Is Influenced by Sex and Handedness. PloS ONE 2(8): 1-7.
Sherwood, Chet, Elizabeth Wahl, Joseph Erwin, et al. 2007. Histological Asymmetries of Primary Motor Cortex Predict Handedness in Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes). The Journal of Comparartive Neurology 503:
Phillips, Kimberly and Chet Sherwood. 2007 Cerebral Petalias and Their Relationship to Handedness in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus Apella). Neuropsychologia 45 (2007): 2398-2401.
Filean, Erik P., U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Domestic Cattle and Political-Economic Change in the Roman-Period Lower Rhineland: The Civitas Batavorum,' supervised by Dr. Glenn R. Storey
ERIK P. FILEAN, then a student at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, was awarded a grant in July 2002 to aid research on 'Domestic Cattle and Political-Economic Change in the Roman-Period Lower Rhineland: The Civitas Batavorum,' supervised by Dr. Glenn R. Storey. The supported research explored changes in cattle exploitation in the civitas Batavorum, a district of the Roman province Germania Inferior, as a result of integration into the Roman Empire. The evidence collected consists of faunal assemblages from rural agricultural settlements, Roman military camps, urban and proto-urban settlements of fIrst through fourth century AD dates, with zooarchaeological analysis focusing on contrasts between military/civilian, Roman/Batavian, and urban/rural evidence for the use of cattle and cattle products. Representation of cattle skeletal parts with respect to economic utility suggests that rural sites with more direct links to the Batavian elite were more involved in cattle product provisioning to Roman forts and civilians, both before and after the evident appearance of market exchange in the later first century, perhaps indicating that the major effect of markets was to create a new pathway for funding of elite political competition. Sex and mortality profiles for cattle, however, indicate a lack of economic specialization at the production end: assemblages are typically dominated by mature female and castrate cattle. Despite the lack of evidence for a major impact of market exchange on husbandry patterns, two cattle subpopulations can be distinguished during the later first and second centuries, differing primarily in robusticity and possibly reflecting intensive breeding of larger animals for urban and military consumers.
Monroe, Cara Rachelle, U. of Californa, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Ancient Human DNA Analysis from CA-SCL-38 Burials: Correlating Biological Relationships, Mortuary Behavior, and Social Inequality,' supervised by Dr. Michael Jochim
Preliminary abstract: Archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic evidence from the Central Coast and San Francisco Bay area of California suggest a complex culture history of dynamic regional interactions and migration, as well as the emergence of varying degrees of permanent social stratification. The predominately Late Period (1000--Contact YBP) earth/shellmound cemetery site of CA-SCL-38 ('Yukisma') located in the Santa Clara Valley of California suggests that the site was spatially structured according to not just age and sex, but also through a dual moiety system and elite status. Using an ancient DNA (aDNA) approach, this project will test for correlations between the genetic relatedness of individuals, grave goods, and burial patterns. This will provide a direct examination of prehistoric mortuary practices and the emergence/maintenance of social inequality.
Cherkaev, Xenia Andrej, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli
XENIA A. CHERKAEV, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received a grant in May 2010 to aid research on 'I Don't Know Why, but that One Wants Me: The Saturation of Use and the Agency of Things in Russia,' supervised by Dr. Elizabeth A. Povinelli. In 2011, Putin warned that the American-funded political opposition would falsify the election results' falsification, and might kill someone off, to blame the government. Attempting to write a history of this present, where universal corruption accusations blend easily into conspiracy theory, this project examines changing regimes of circulation, and the correlating changes in regimes of truth. It begins in late-Soviet Leningrad, asking how people made and obtained everyday things by using their positions in the centralized distribution system, their access to surplus material hoarded by enterprises, and the reified norms of State institutions - and how State Secrecy, permeating everyday life as another monolithic norm, guaranteed a truth, just out of reach: 'It irritated! There were certain things some idiot didn't want me to know!' It then asks how regimes of both truth and circulation changed with the post-Soviet transition, in which the sudden disclosure of previously unavailable materials correlated with widespread political discussion, extrasensory and religious activity, sharp commodity deficit, and new economic policies, which allowed people to make cash on State surplus and informal deals that 'took the country apart by the screws ? swiped everything from precious metals to Arab horses... fantastic times!'
Yonucu, Deniz, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY - To aid research on 'Transforming Space and Citizens: Neoliberal Urban Governance and the Re-Formation of the State in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. P. Steven Sangren
DENIZ YONUCU, then a student at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Transforming Space and Citizens: Neoliberal Urban Governance and the Re-Formation of the State in Turkey,' supervised by Dr. P. Steven Sangren. The research has concentrated on the processes that led to the emergence of state of exception policies in some working-class neighborhoods of Istanbul during the 1990s. The first phase research was based on an ethnographic study conducted in a working class neighborhood of Istanbul. The second phase of the research was concentrated on the examination of the human rights abuse documents of the 1990s. The dissertation will argue that in addition to the officially declared state of exception policies in the Kurdish region of Turkey, the residents of the mostly Alevi populated, leftist identified neighborhoods have, also, been subjected to state of exception policies during the 1990s. The dissertation will analyze the effects of these policies on the marginalized working classes. It will also investigate the ways in which these policies which, sometimes express themselves in the most brutal forms of violence, inform the political subjectivities of the leftist identified working-class people in Istanbul.
Malone, Molly Sue, U. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada - To aid research on 'Living on the Skagit River: Native American Historical Consciousness and Relationships with the Aquatic Environment,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Granville Miller
MOLLY SUE MALONE, then a student at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, was awarded a grant in October 2009, to aid research on 'Living on the Skagit River: Native American Historical Consciousness and Relationships with the Aquatic Environment,' supervised by Dr. Bruce Granville Miller. This research examines Upper Skagit Indian Tribe members' historical consciousness of their families' settlement patterns and fishing practices in the Skagit River watershed over the past two hundred years, and ,asks what this consciousness reveals about how contemporary Native American relationships to land and water are shaped by colonial processes of land alienation and subsequent struggles for tribal recognition and access to aboriginal territory. Data was collected over a twelve-month period using three overlapping methods of inquiry: the collection of oral narratives with contemporary Upper Skagit people, participant observation within the Upper Skagit community, and archival work with documents pertaining to the post-contact history of the Skagit River valley as well as field notes and oral narrative transcriptions collected by earlier anthropologists working among the Upper Skagit throughout the 20th century. The data is compiled into family settlement narratives and an overall tribal narrative for the purpose of evaluating the various levels of historical consciousness pertaining to colonial impacts on the watershed .
Pritzker, Sonya Elizabeth, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Language Socialization and Ideologies of Translation in U.S. Chinese Medical Education,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ruth Ochs
SONYA PRITZKER, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'Language Socialization and Ideologies of Translation in U.S. Chinese Medical Education,' supervised by Dr. Elinor Ochs. This research looks at the role of language in the process by which English-speaking students in the U.S. learn to practice Chinese medicine, including acupuncture and herbal medicine. The research further places such learning in the broader socio-political and economic context of translation in Chinese medicine. Data consists of over ten months of classroom ethnography and person-centered interviews with students and teachers at a school of Chinese medicine in southern California, as well as interviews with translators and publishers of Chinese medical educational texts in the U.S. and China. Research findings demonstrate the daily enactment of a complex transnational linguistic, medical, and socio-cultural phenomenon impacting the way Chinese medicine is learned and practiced in an American context. Major themes emerging from the data point to the strong relationship between personal experiences of the self and linguistic choices in terms of translation and representation. The goal of the research is to build a further bridge between socio-cultural, psycho-cultural, and linguistic anthropology by showing the relationship between embodied personal experience and language in the highly contested, political economy of translation in U.S. Chinese medical education.
Walker, Michael M., Michigan State U., East Lansing, MI - To aid research on 'Commons or Enclosures? Negotiating Access to Wetlands in Manica Province, Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. William Derman
MICHAEL M. WALKER, then a student at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, was awarded a grant in July 2005 to aid research on 'Commons or Enclosures? Negotiating Access to Wetlands in Manica Province, Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. William Derman. This research examines smallholders' access to, and use of, wetland resources in Sussundenga, Mozambique. It takes an historical perspective on how access to land and water resources has changed under various forms of land tenure in Sussundenga district over the last 50 years. The legacies of land dispossession by Portuguese settlers in the 1950s, the creation of a communal village by the ruling party, FRELIMO, in the 1970s, and migration and displacement resulting from the civil war in the 1980s created a context of competing and overlapping claims to land. Consequently smallholders negotiate multiple terrains of authority, including local government officials, traditional authorities, and agricultural extension offices as well as negotiate with friends, neighbors, and family members to gain access to wetland resources, known locally as matoro, which are critical for dry season agricultural production. This research highlights that despite interventions in agriculture by the colonial and post-colonial state and development organizations, traditional authorities, such as chiefs, continue to play an important role in legitimizing access to land and water resources. Furthermore, this research concludes that while the enclosure of land, water, and wetland resources in Sussundenga is taking place, predominantly in areas with a history of competing claims to land, other more flexible patterns of access to land and water resources often through kin networks ,and traditional leaders coexists with more exclusionary practices.
Biruk, Crystal Lynn, U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - To aid research on 'The Politics of Knowledge Production in Collaborative AIDS Research in Malawi,' supervised by Dr. Sandra T. Barnes
CRYSTAL BIRUK, while a student at University of Pennsylvania, was awarded funding in August 2007 to conduct dissertation research on 'The politics of knowledge production in collaborative AIDS research in Malawi,' supervised by Dr. Sandra Barnes. During the period covered by the grant, the grantee focused on collecting data to thoroughly describe and analyze the Malawian research context, as shaped by policy environments, history, funding priorities, media representations, and public responses to research. In addition to conducting interviews with a wide spectrum of individuals involved in collaborative research in Malawi, she utilized the anthropological field methods of participant observation, informal conversation, surveys, archival research, and media analysis to trace the contours of the social, political, and economic context in Malawi out of which knowledge claims about AIDS emerge and are assigned value. The data collected during this period have allowed the grantee to draw conclusions regarding the diverse interests of different kinds of actors involved in research in Malawi, the relationships between policy and research, the interaction of state and non-state actors in implementation of research projects, and the plethora of interpretations attached to the term 'research' in Malawi. In the next phase of the project, the grantee will conduct participant observation among four ongoing collaborative AIDS research projects. These will serve as case studies, and the data collected in the first phase of research will permit her to draw connections between micro-level observations about how knowledge claims are assigned authority within projects and the larger Malawian context in which these research projects occur. In sub-Saharan Africa, an emphasis on collaborative research has brought changes in the structural organization and practice of research. Though expert knowledge and expertise are now assumed to be contested and negotiated instead of simply imposed, the grantee's research will explore the specific micro-processes, markers, and contexts through which certain actors and claims become authoritative over others.