Giusto, Salvatore, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Neomelodic Notes: Commodified Aesthetics and Illicit Political Economy in Naples, Italy,' supervised by Dr. Andrea Muehlebach
Preliminary abstract:'The term 'neomelodic singing' defines a pop-music genre dominating the musical scene of Naples, Italy, since the 1990s. Neomelodic songs hinge on narratives seeking to depict the experiences of Neapolitan lower class subjects, with a remarkable preference for those engaging with organized crime. In spite of the structural poverty illustrating the life conditions of the Neapolitan underclass, the neomelodic musical industry brings in millions of euros per year in that city. Most of this money eventually flows into the pockets of local crime. This invests impressive amounts of capital into the neomelodic industry, and thus influences this musical genre's aesthetic forms, economic value, and socio-cultural meaning. In so doing, it transforms the illicit cultural landscapes that neomelodic music iconizes into licit performance,socially shared aesthetics, and collective identity. My research focuses on the coalescence between neomelodic aesthetics,Neapolitan political economy, and the local cultural sphere to offer insight into the articulation of licit and illicit political economies in neoliberal Italy. It does so by exploring the commodified aesthetics leading to the entrenchment of organized crime in Naples.'
Zhuang, Yijie, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Landscape Change and its Interaction with Prehistoric Human Activities- Geoarchaeological Investigation in North China,' supervised by Dr. Charles Andrew Ivey French
YIJIE ZHUANG, then a student at the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, received funding in April 2011, to aid research on 'Landscape Change and its Interaction with Prehistoric Human Activities: Geoarchaeological Investigation in North China,' supervised by Dr. Charles A.I. French. This study conducts geoarchaeological investigation on four early Neolithic sites in middle and lower Yellow River of North China. At the Cishan site -- a new dating project that pushes the earliest millet remains at the site back to 10,000 BP, or 2000 years earlier than previously thought -- has greatly stimulated archaeologists' enthusiasm in the search for the origin of agriculture in North China. The ongoing geoarchaeology at the site has contributed to the debate by providing geochronological evidence and detailed information concerning how these early farmers managed the landscape. The other three contemporary sites are dated to 8000-7000BP. Micromorphological examination and geo-physical analyses suggest a mixed pattern of land-use management at Guobei and Guantaoyuan in the middle Yellow River, which is also corroborated by a similar modern study in the same area using the same methods. Whereas at the lower Yellow River site (Yuezhuang) micromorphological and geo-physical analyses and settlement pattern study indicate that people were restricted to resource-rich environments, people were still frequently moving around in the landscapes and year-round occupation had not yet occurred. These conclusions chime with archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological studies that the establishment of agrarian landscapes in North China involves complicated processes.
Kruglova, Anna, U. of Toronto, Scarborough, Canada - To aid research on 'The Unhip Risk Society: Imagination and Uncertainty in a Russian City,' supervised by Dr. Michael Joshua Lambek
ANNA KRUGLOVA, then a student at the University of Toronto, Scarborough, Canada, was awarded a grant in May 2010, to aid research on 'The Unhip Risk Society: Imagination and Uncertainty in a Russian City,' supervised by Dr. Michael Joshua Lambek. The project addresses everyday epistemologies of the postsocialist condition among middle-class contemporaries in Russia, with a focus on how and why perceived limits, limitations, and voids of knowledge are constructed. The grantee conducted fieldwork in an 'average' Russian city, documenting encounters with people in their 30s, who are seen, and see themselves, as equally 'average' in terms of wealth and success in life. The everyday world of Russian 'authoritarian capitalism' is perceived, paradoxically, as both stagnant and consistently unknowable. Conversations and ethnographic observation illustrate how the rhetoric of uncertainty, surprise, mystery, danger, and revelation pervades all aspects of life. The project argues that at least among the so-called 'generation of perestroika,' and despite authoritarianism and propaganda, the Russian state failed to instil any semblance of hegemonic consensus. The few sites where the norms seem to be agreed upon and the transgressions are actively contested -- for instance, the culture of car ownership and driving -- are explored to highlight by contrast the theme of uncertainty. All too often, all sorts of lines --- between work and leisure, public and private, sobriety and alcoholism, personal and collective responsibility, fidelity and infidelity, assault and defence, modernity and obsolescence -- remain unclear. When few answers are available, uncertainty becomes an ethical stance: questioning, pointing to danger or deferring a choice brings a dimension of morality where it is otherwise lacking. Although such orientations preclude a sense of futurity, positive reassurance comes from the physical and psychological borders, a belief in 'nature' and the present moment, and the old stock of collective ideals.
Ornellas, Melody Li, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Negotiating Citizenship: Cross-border Marriages and Collective Actions in Hong Kong,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable
MELODY LI ORNELLAS, then a student at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Negotiating Citizenship: Cross-Border Marriages and Collective Actions in Hong Kong,' supervised by Dr. Nicole Constable. This research investigated contemporary Hong Kong/China cross-border marriages and the complexity of politics, power, and agency involved in mainland Chinese migrant wives' experiences in negotiating their immigration, citizenship, and adaptation to life in Hong Kong. Specifically, it focused on the rise of collective struggles among a group of 'visiting wives' who are only allowed to live temporarily in Hong Kong by utilizing a family visit permit, which must be periodically renewed in the mainland. Based on fieldwork conducted in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province in China, this research explored the wives' cross-border living conditions, difficulties they face during permit renewal, impacts of a non-local/visitor immigration status on their experience of living in Hong Kong, and how this situation prompts them and their Hong Kong husbands and families to engage in political activism to claim rights. This project demonstrates that citizenship is best understood as a negotiated process. In contrast to the state's formalistic definitions of local vs. visitor, 'visiting wives' and their families strive to redefine such meanings in their own terms by emphasizing the wives' familial relationships and significant participation in a range of social activities through which their 'local' status and ties to Hong Kong are substantively expressed.
Filean, Erik P., U. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - To aid research on 'Domestic Cattle and Political-Economic Change in the Roman-Period Lower Rhineland: The Civitas Batavorum,' supervised by Dr. Glenn R. Storey
ERIK P. FILEAN, then a student at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, was awarded a grant in July 2002 to aid research on 'Domestic Cattle and Political-Economic Change in the Roman-Period Lower Rhineland: The Civitas Batavorum,' supervised by Dr. Glenn R. Storey. The supported research explored changes in cattle exploitation in the civitas Batavorum, a district of the Roman province Germania Inferior, as a result of integration into the Roman Empire. The evidence collected consists of faunal assemblages from rural agricultural settlements, Roman military camps, urban and proto-urban settlements of fIrst through fourth century AD dates, with zooarchaeological analysis focusing on contrasts between military/civilian, Roman/Batavian, and urban/rural evidence for the use of cattle and cattle products. Representation of cattle skeletal parts with respect to economic utility suggests that rural sites with more direct links to the Batavian elite were more involved in cattle product provisioning to Roman forts and civilians, both before and after the evident appearance of market exchange in the later first century, perhaps indicating that the major effect of markets was to create a new pathway for funding of elite political competition. Sex and mortality profiles for cattle, however, indicate a lack of economic specialization at the production end: assemblages are typically dominated by mature female and castrate cattle. Despite the lack of evidence for a major impact of market exchange on husbandry patterns, two cattle subpopulations can be distinguished during the later first and second centuries, differing primarily in robusticity and possibly reflecting intensive breeding of larger animals for urban and military consumers.
Bardolph, Dana Nicole, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Exploring Migration, Identities, and Inequalities through Foodways in the Moche Valley of North Coastal Peru,' supervised by Dr. Amber VanDerwarker
Preliminary abstract: The goal of this project is to examine the relationships between food, identity, and social inequality through a paleoethnobotanical perspective. Specifically, this project seeks to reconstruct household culinary practices in order to address the roles that food played in the migrant experience of highlanders that settled in a traditionally coastal river valley just prior to the consolidation of the Southern Moche polity of north coastal Peru. Archaeologists have long recognized that highland-coastal interaction resulted in new forms of sociopolitical organization that shaped the development of the Southern Moche polity, one of the largest and most complex prehistoric political systems to have developed in the New World; however, the historical details of highland colonization are not well understood. The proposed project will examine household foodways during the Gallinazo/Early Moche phases (A.D. 1-300) through a synchronic analysis of paleoethnobotanical data from recent large-scale excavations of highland and coastal residential compounds in the middle Moche Valley. Macrobotanical data, along with starch/phytolith and ceramic residue analyses, will be used to reconstruct the resources targeted by highland migrants; the staging of foodways within a highland colony; and the ways in which migrant highland agricultural strategies differed from those of local coastal groups. Through detailed contextual analysis at the microscale, this project aims to evaluate the ways in which labor related to the production, processing, and consumption of foodstuffs may have reinforced gender and status-based inequalities in the tumultuous sociopolitical environment of the pre-state Moche Valley.
Webb, Sarah Jayne, U. of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia - To aid research on 'Materials Reformed, Materials of Reform: Value and Forest Product Trade on Palawan Island, the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Wolfram Dressler
SARAH J. WEBB, then a student at University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, received a grant in April 2011 to aid research on 'Materials Reformed, Materials of Reform: Value and Forest Product Trade on Palawan Island, the Philippines,' supervised by Dr. Wolfram H. Dressler. This project traces how values of Palawan forest honey are produced through socio-economic relations between Tagbanua harvesters, middle traders, civil society, and, the state. Value-adding such non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is heralded as a market-based solution to sustainable forest use. The grantee's multi-sited ethnography highlights the need to consider the specificities and complexities of how value is made through everyday exchanges. Rather than relying on linear production-to-consumption models dominating forest product valuations, this study uses a commodityscape approach. Well established in anthropological studies of globalization, the approach suggests commodity values are contextually created within the networks of people, places, ideas, and, things through which products circulate. Data from participant observation, workshops, interviews, and, surveys were collated with secondary sources to document how a product with a relatively localised market is embedded within national, regional, and global value-making networks. This study contributes an analysis of how marginalizations of Tagbanua families from broader meanings made about honey value, and the romanticisms of forest-livelihoods which make it valuable are not abnormalities external to processes of 'value-adding,' which can be technically amended, but cultural politics endogenous to the creation and communication of value.
Jordan, Michael Paul, U. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK - To aid research on 'Descendants' Organizations and Cultural Heritage in Kiowa Society,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Charles Swan
MICHAEL P. JORDAN, then a student at University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Descendants' Organizations and Cultural Heritage in Kiowa Society,' supervised by Dr. Daniel Charles Swan. At the core of recent research on heritage and historical consciousness is the premise that interpretations and representations of the past must be understood as rooted in the contemporary moment. This study addressed the ways in which heritage and historical consciousness are implicated in the social dynamics of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma by focusing on formal descendants' organizations, groups organized by lineal descendants to commemorate their nineteenth-century ancestors. Research has focused upon identifying individuals' motivations for participating in descendants' organizations, documenting cultural performance events sponsored by descendants' organizations, and delineating the position of these organizations within the broader social network of indigenous organizations that sponsor cultural performance events in southwestern Oklahoma. In addition, the research has examined the ways in which contemporary Kiowa people employ intellectual property as a means of visibly asserting their ties to prominent nineteenth-century ancestors. Ultimately, research on Kiowa descendants' organizations has contributed to an understanding of the ways in which heritage and historical consciousness are produced, deployed, accessed, and contested in comparatively small, but culturally distinct social settings, providing a much-needed counterbalance to previous studies which have focused on their role in large-scale nationalist and separatist movements.
Thiels, John F., U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Linguistic Repertoire Expansion and Ideologies of Multilingualism in Eastern Paraguay,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
JOHN F. THIELS, then a student at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, was awarded funding in April 2005 to aid research on 'Linguistic Repertoire Expansion and Ideologies of Multilingualism in Eastern Paraguay,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine. Ethnographic fieldwork in the multilingual frontier town of Nueva Esperanza, Paraguay, revealed a complex social field in which ideologies of linguistic difference and appropriate practice entered into everyday social relations between Brazilians and Paraguayans. While upper-status Brazilians commonly expressed ideologies of social dominance, other Brazilians expressed a variety of alignments towards and against Paraguay with various kinds of uptake by their Paraguayan interlocutors. Whereas many Paraguayans aligned themselves towards officialist ideologies of language and nation, transient workers often countered these notions with alternative histories and explicitly syncretic notions of language use. Ethnography of community radio and other media in this area approaches the question of multilingual publics in linguistic anthropology and notions of temporality and political change that are enacted in the relations of these media with municipal government. Community and commercial radio mediate between different publics and produce the notion of a multilingual public, performing multilingualism for a public that identifies itself with the language contact prevalent in the area.