Mojaddedi, Fatima, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'The War Bubble: Kabul's Shifting Warscape and Afghan-American Community,' supervised by Dr. Rosalind Carmel Morris
Preliminary abstract: This project examines Kabul as a frontier in an international economy of war profiteering and considers how it has transformed in the interactions of space, war and transnational diaspora activity. I focus on the crucial role of the repatriated Afghan-American community in mediating Kabul's booming war economy and property market. Seeking to illustrate how diverse social actors enable and mediate urban militarization, I will trace a range of transformative local effects in key sites of socio-urban transformation in Kabul that exemplify broader processes of urban militarization and social enclaving. These discrepant spaces overlap to provide a landscape that shapes various understandings and experiences of war. Thus, my dissertation asks: How has the war reconfigured Kabul's socio-spatial and urban landscape? What role does Kabul's speculative property market and repatriated Afghan-American community play? How does segregated social space effect how local and foreign residents live in Kabul? My project builds on several broad literatures while insisting on the importance of Kabul's particular socio-cultural and economic topography; studying the ways in which Kabul's urban 'warscape' is forged by spatial relations of militarized control that hinge on overlapping social and economic relations.
Gillespie, Kelly, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Fantasies of Containment: Ironies of Prison-Fetish in Emerging South African Democracy,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff
KELLY GILLESPIE, then a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in July 2004 to aid research on 'Fantasies of Containment: Ironies of Prison-Fetish in Emerging South African Democracy,' supervised by Dr. Jean Comaroff. This research comprised a four-month ethnographic fieldwork phase in four rural South African prisons: Voorberg Medium A, Voorberg Medium B, Malmesbury New Generation Prison, and Malmesbury Old Prison, each of which was built in a different era of South African history, and each having a distinct architectural form and series of facilities. Within the context of a post-apartheid state trying to distance itself from the brutal prison practices of apartheid South Africa, the central policy strategy for reinventing South African prisons, and by implication creating a secure democratic national order, is a wholehearted and willful dedication to the practice of 'correction' within prisons. The research was primarily concerned with the prison as a social system, as a series of encounters and relationship patterns that emerge as a result of a variety of factors: the histories of the particular institutions, the histories of people living and working there, the imperatives of the new order, and those of the architectural space in which the social is constituted. The most fascinating part of the research within prisons was the shoring up of state ideology about prisons against the biographies of prisoners and warders, and the way in which these played out in the possibilities of social relationships within the closed public of the prison. The convergence of radically varied biographies, caught up all together in a prison trying to recreate itself as a post-apartheid institution, has created an extraordinary series of encounters and anxieties.
Wilbur, Alicia K., U. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM - To aid research on 'Genetics of Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Native South Americans,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone
ALICIA K. WILBUR, then a student at University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was awarded a grant in June 2003 to aid research on 'Genetics of Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in Native South Americans,' supervised by Dr. Anne C. Stone. Tuberculosis is a significant health problem for the majority of the world's populations. Evidence indicates that host genetics play an important role in determining susceptibility to tuberculosis, and research in various populations worldwide indicates that multiple loci are usually involved, and that these loci differ by population. Although incidence in Native American populations since European contact has been high, little research into the genetics of susceptibility has been undertaken in these groups. Here, the role of host genetics in tuberculosis susceptibility was examined the Ache and Ava of Paraguay. Three candidate genes (the vitamin D receptor, SLC11A1, and mannose binding lectin) were analyzed for association with three measures of tuberculosis status. For both the Ache and Ava, strong evidence for host involvement in tuberculosis susceptibility was found at all three candidate genes. Discordant results between the three measures of TB status indicate that future research should concentrate immune history at both the population and individual level, nutritional status, and exposure and disease status of household members. Finally, patterns of nucleotide variation at each of the loci studied point to reduced genetic variation at these immune loci, and point the way toward future studies in population history and natural selection.
Hackman, Melissa Joy, U. of California, Santa Cruz, CA - To aid research on ''Born-Again' Masculinity in Contemporary South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Carolyn M. Shaw
MELISSA J. HACKMAN, then a student at University of California, Santa Cruz, California, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on ''Born-Again' Masculinity in Contemporary South Africa,' supervised by Dr. Carolyn M. Shaw. From July 2007 to July 2008 the grantee conducted ethnographic fieldwork with Pentecostal men who were members of an Assembly of God Church in the Sea Point section of Cape Town. The grantee focused on how masculinity is transformed for men through the born-again experience, specifically their sexuality and gender identities. Much of her work was with men in a Christian ex-gay and sexual addiction ministry ('healing homosexuality through the power of Jesus Christ') at this church. Masculinity is historically profoundly racialized in South Africa, so a key emphasis of this ethnography is the intersections between born-again masculinity and race. Although Pentecostalism is usually seen as reproducing patriarchy and a stereotypically macho Christianity, conversion simultaneously 'masculinizes' and 'feminizes' men, who take a submissive and subservient role to God, traits that are usually seen as feminine and subordinate. Spiritual warfare -- fighting Satan, demons, and evil through intense prayer -- is part of everyday life for Pentecostals. Christian men see a major role for themselves in protection of those around them -- not just physically, but also emotionally and spiritually.
Makram-Ebeid, Dina Waguih, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Steel Lives Under Neo-liberalism: Everyday Politics of Labour in Helwan, Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan P. Parry
DINA W. MAKRAM-EBEID, then a student at London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Steel Lives Under Neo-liberalism: Everyday Politics of Labor in Helwan, Egypt,' supervised by Dr. Jonathan P. Parry. This grant supported the second half of a research project focusing on steel workers in one of Egypt's oldest public-owned plants in Helwan governorate. The researcher conducted ethnographic fieldwork on two shop-floors inside the steel plant and among workers' community in the neighboring 'Company Town.' The ethnographic investigation highlighted how workers and their households incorporate the drastic changes in industrial policies, which occurred over the past two decades, into their everyday lives. The research findings suggest that the new work conditions in the plant and living conditions in the Company Town are creating new relations among various groups of workers and between workers and management. These new relations, for example, between young workers employed casually and old workers with stable contracts; production and maintenance workers, and workers and engineers, in turn, influence the work culture of the plant and the values that are (re-) produced among the community of workers. This research thus, encourages linking the analysis of wider changes in community relations and values to the shifting conditions of work worldwide.
Ferraro, Joseph, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'The Late Pliocene Zooarchaeology of Kanjera South, Southwestern Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Thomas W. Plummer
JOSEPH FERRARO, while a student at the University of California in Los Angeles, California, received funding in February 2002 to aid research on the late Pliocene zooarchaeology of Kanjera South, southwestern Kenya, under the supervision of Dr. Thomas W. Plummer. A consideration of sampling biases (spatial, temporal, ecological, and numeric) suggested that in the past, researchers likely underestimated the behavioral variability expressed by Oldowan hominins. To assess the full range of Oldowan hominin behaviors requires the comparative analysis of a number of excavated Oldowan assemblages distributed across time and space, representing a wide range of ecological conditions and possessing well-preserved faunas. The late Pliocene locality of Kanjera South contributes toward meeting this requirement. Its assemblages represent the only sizable, well-preserved Oldowan faunas so far recovered outside of Olduvai Gorge, and preliminary geochemical and paleontological analyses strongly suggest that the assemblages formed in an open grassland, a habitat distinct from those of other Oldowan occurrences. Ferraro conducted a zooarchaeological study of the excavated vertebrate fauna of Kanjera South, focusing especially on issues of predation pressures and foraging ecologies. His preliminary results strongly suggested that Oldowan hominins at Kanjera behaved in a way dissimilar to that frequently reported at the penecontemporaneous Oldowan locality of FLK Zinj in Olduvai Gorge.
Wellman, Rose Edith, U. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA - To aid research on 'Blood, Food, and Sociality in Iran,' supervised by Dr. Susan McKinnon
ROSE EDITH WELLMAN, then a student at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, was awarded funding in May 2010, to aid research on 'Blood, Food, and Sociality in Iran,' supervised by Dr. Susan McKinnon. This research investigates kinship and nation-making in post-revolutionary Iran. Drawing on ten months of ethnographic research in a small Iranian town and two months of popular media and archival research, it explores how Iranian kinship is created through the dynamic interaction of inheritable substances such as blood, acts of feeding and cooking, and Shi'i Islamic blessing -- here described as 'kindred Islamic spirit.' In addition, this research suggests that an understanding of Iranian kinship is critical to comprehending Iranian ideas about national sociality, which is similarly organized by the interaction of inheritable substance (e.g., martyr's blood), public and pious food sharing, and Islamic blessing. The researcher further addresses the hierarchical relationship of blood and food and the unique ability of each to channel blessing and shape moral kin and citizens. This research builds on recent theoretical and ethnographic work on the interrelationship between kinship and nation, and it provides a much-needed portrait of contemporary post-Revolutionary Iranian sociality.
Rosecan, Stephen M., U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Choctaws in the Workforce: Development, Hegemony, and Conjunctural History in East-Central Mississippi, ' supervised by Dr. Raymond D. Fogelson
STEPHEN ROSECAN, while a student at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, was awarded a grant in June 2001 to aid research on 'Choctaws in the Workforce: Development, Hegemony, and Conjunctural History in East-Central Mississippi,' supervised by Dr. Raymond D. Fogelson. In recent years, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians has become nationally recognized for its economic development initiatives. In my research, I sought to gain a better understanding of some of the local issues that have arisen from the Choctaws' economic development projects. Rather than finding (as commonly depicted) a homogeneous group that quietly assents to the tribal government's actions, I found a steady undercurrent of dissent among segments of tribal members. Most people did not question the legitimacy of the work practices that are constitutive of development; however, many had concerns over the proper means of distributing the jobs, revenue, and resources provided by the development projects. Development was not so much discussed as a set of productive practices but rather as a set of relationships among people. The struggle for many on the reservation was to establish a generally accepted, equitable, and legitimate way of distributing the products of development among tribal members.
Laheij, Christian Laurentius Elisabeth, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom - To aid research on ''Resolve this Problem our Way.' Islamic Reformism and Dispute Management in Northern Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. Deborah James
CHRISTIAN L.E. LAHEIJ, then a student at London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom, was awarded a grant in October 2011 to aid research on ''Resolve This Problem Our Way:' Islamic Reformism and Dispute Management in Northern Mozambique,' supervised by Dr. Deborah James. The research focused on dispute management in the context of an Islamic revival in Nampula City in northern Mozambique. Through a combination of research methods (including participant observation, life histories, legal case studies, an attitudinal survey among households in three field sites, and experimental methods borrowed from moral psychology), it explored intersections between Islamic reformism and ideas and practices of dispute management. The research found that reformist Muslims distinguish themselves primarily from others in Nampula City through their conceptions of personhood. While the majority of city dwellers privilege kinship and citizenship modalities and conceptualize the self as emergent, taking on different content in new contexts and social roles, reformist Muslims hold a more objectified, individualized notion of the self, defined in relation to Allah. This has various implications for dispute management. Among other things, reformist conceptions of personhood are involved in the reconstitution of private-public boundaries, in the emergence of novel models for public accountability, in revised measures of truth finding, and in the transformation of the normative bases of legal reasoning and of punishment preferences.