Catlett, Kierstin Kay, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on ''A Dental Topographic Analysis of Deciduous Tooth Wear in Hominoids,' supervised by Dr. Gary Todd Schwartz
Preliminary abstract: Using 3D technologies, studies tracked wear on the occlusal surfaces of molars in primates and found that the chewing surfaces, and, thereby, their functional capabilities, were maintained over time. These results suggest that selection has acted on how teeth wear. Comparable studies on the deciduous dentition do not exist, and studies on any aspect of deciduous dental wear in primates are extremely limited. One study hypothesized that the state of the deciduous attrition in great apes coincides with weaning, and this information could infer the relative timing of weaning for hominins (Aiello et al., 1991). This has not been tested. This dissertation merges two theoretical perspectives (i.e., life history theory and functional dental morphology) to address this question: Do the fourth deciduous premolars (dp4s) maintain their occlusal capabilities and does differential wear correlate with weaning? If functional and life history signals can be extracted from wear patterns, it would suggest that selection has acted on how dp4s wear. Since the dp4s are present across the weaning transition in apes, understanding how selection may have acted on how dp4s wear could reveal an untapped resource to learn how juveniles use their teeth to forage effectively and, thus, minimize their mortality risks.
Hayat, Maira, U. of Chicago, Chicago, IL - To aid research on 'Bureaucracies of Care, Infrastructures of Crime: Water Economies in Postcolonial Pakistan,' supervised by Dr. Kaushik Sundar Rajan
Preliminary abstract: Through ethnographic examination of water theft, I propose to study state-citizen relations, bureaucratic care, conceptions of property, and of the licit in Pakistan. I approach water theft not only in the usual register of law and crime via case law, but also as practice--ways of navigating water infrastructures and flows--and in everyday discourse: allegations, impressions, and rumors.
Seshia Galvin, Shaila, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'State of Nature: Agriculture, Development and the Making of Organic Uttarakhand,' supervised by Dr. Michael R. Dove
SHAILA SESHIA GALVIN, then a student at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, was awarded funding in October 2007 to aid research on 'State of Nature: Agriculture, Development and the Making of Organic Uttarakhand,' supervised by Dr. Michael Dove. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the newest state of the Indian Union. Shortly after its formation, the government of this Himalayan state actively strategized to develop organic agriculture as a key component of rural development. The promotion of organic agriculture in Uttarakhand expresses an agrarian utopianism that initially appears counter-intuitive in relation to the modernist projects of India's Green and 'gene' revolutions. Yet, as architects of the policy claim that agriculture in Uttarakhand is 'organic by default' and emphasize the persistence of indigenous traditions and seed varieties, systems of contract farming, agricultural extension, and organic certification are put in place to integrate the region's mountain farmers into domestic and global supply chains. This project examines changes wrought in the agrarian landscape of Uttarakhand by exploring the bureaucratic, regulatory and agrarian practices called into being in the process of becoming organic. By asking why organic agriculture has become important for Uttarakhand, it aims to unravel the tensions and paradoxes forged at the juncture of locally situated yet globally ambitious processes of place-making and agrarian practice.
Maldonado, Andrea, Brown U., Providence, RI - To aid research on 'Culture: The New Drug of Choice in Mexico City,' supervised by Dr. Matthew Gutmann
ANDREA MALDONADO, then a student at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, received a grant in October 2010 to aid research on 'Culture: The New Drug of Choice in Mexico City,' supervised by Dr. Matthew Gutmann. This dissertation explores new forms of state-sponsored care among low-income Mexicans in relation to the places where they surface and the interests fueling their support. Since 2002, an assortment of 'cultural therapies' (from yoga to tai chi) has emerged as Mexico's prescription of choice to prevent and treat what authorities identify as 'culturally transmitted diseases' (such as diabetes) among the urban poor. In Mexico City, these measures take shape in health institutes, cultural centers, parks, and streets. The growth of this campaign-which blames sickness on the culture of poor people and outsources their care to non-medical providers-raises questions about how states manage the production and circulation of knowledge in this nascent health arena, and why ordinary Mexicans subscribe to these policies. This study investigates the nuances and contradictions of this 'turn to culture,' suggesting that in spite of its appeal, it may be exacerbating aspects of inequality in public health. It reveals how the enactment of cultural healing in place encourages new techniques of self-care and new sites of social differentiation. Health services constituted outside clinical settings, but operating with institutional legitimacy, can generate new exchanges-even as they also engender novel practices of state and expert surveillance.
Grace, Samantha Lois, U. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - To aid research on 'Becoming Citizens: Schooling the Life Course in Ecuador and the U.S.' supervised by Dr. Susan J. Shaw
Preliminary abstract: Over the last few years, Ecuador has undergone an “educational revolution” explicitly aimed at reducing citizen inequality. Underlying these new laws and practices is an understanding, also found in U.S. educational discourses, that students are still in the process of becoming citizens and that this process will reach completion as they achieve adulthood. Both Andean anthropology and U.S.
Gerkey, Andrew Patrick, Rutgers U., New Brunswick, NJ - To aid research on 'From State Collectives to Local Commons: Koryak Salmon Fishers and Reindeer Herders in the Russian Far East,' supervised by Dr. Lee Cronk
DREW GERKEY, then a student at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, received a grant in June 2007 to aid research on 'From State Collectives to Local Commons: Koryak Salmon Fishers and Reindeer Herders in the Russian Far East,' supervised by Dr. Lee Cronk. This project examined cooperation and collective action among Koryak salmon fishers and reindeer herders living on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East. The grantee completed eleven months of research (October 2007-August 2008) at several locations, including the regional capital, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and three villages in the Oliutorsky District (Tilichiki, Khailino, and Vyvenka). The primary goals of this project were to understand how contemporary fishers and herders negotiate cooperative relationships, and how differing cultural norms and values embodied in collective institutions affect these negotiations. The grantee worked with fishers and herders in two kinds of collective institutions: 1) government owned and managed collectives formed during the Soviet era (sovkhoz); and 2) privately owned and managed collectives created during the post-Soviet era (obshchina). A variety of qualitative and quantitative ethnographic methods were used to collect data on cooperation within these collectives, including participant observation, interviews, surveys, and experimental economic games. These ethnographic data can be synthesized to understand the conditions that foster cooperation within sovkhoz and obshchina collectives and the factors that cause cooperation to break down.
Rosenbaum, Stacy Lynn, U. of California, Los Angeles, CA - To aid research on 'Male/Immature Relationships in the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei),' supervised by Dr. Joan B. Silk
STACY L. ROSENBAUM, then a student at University of California, Los Angeles, California, received funding in April 2011 to aid research on 'Male/Immature Relationships in the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei),' supervised by Dr. Joan B. Silk. The focus of this research is relationships between adult male gorillas and the immature animals in their groups. More specifically, this study evaluates: 1) what benefits males offer to young in their groups; 2) whether males and their offspring can discriminate between each other and unrelated animals; 3) if, and how, relationships with males influence physiological stress levels in immature animals and their mothers; and, 4) if male 'interest' in immatures correlates with certain hormonal profiles. These questions integrate behavioral observation, non-invasive collection of hormones, and evaluation of genetic relatedness between males and immatures. All work was done at the Karisoke Research Center in Musanze, Rwanda. During this phase of the project, there were 1019 hours of behavioral data collected, 6500 fecal samples for testosterone and corticosteroid analysis, and 600 urine samples for prolactin analysis. Paternity data (via fecal samples) on infants in the gorilla population was also obtained. Summary and analyses of all three types of data are ongoing. Initial results, presented at the International Primatological Society Congress in August 2012, indicate that maturing animals sustain long-term relationships with adult males they prefer as infants. Complete results will be forthcoming in scientific publications over the next 1-2 years.
Yount-Andre, Chelsie Jeannette, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Giving, Taking, and Sharing: Reproducing Economic Moralities and Social Hierarchies in Transnational Senegal,' supervised by Dr. Caroline Bledsoe
Preliminary abstract: My proposed dissertation research asks how deepening inequalities in the wake of European economic crisis may be reshaping the ways Senegalese migrants in Paris socialize their children into economic moralities. Faced with the potential disintegration of their advantaged position in France, university-educated Senegalese provide a striking example of how transnational migrants reinforce class and education-based hierarchies in the transnational field as they cling to postcolonial privilege. Key to understanding how these migrants simultaneously maintain transnational socio-economic relations and invest in incorporation into their host country is examination of how they reproduce 'economic moralities,' normative sets of social expectations regarding material obligation and entitlement. Analysis of the ways migrants socialize children to competently manage multiple economic moralities according to context and participant framework, aligning themselves with some and distinguishing themselves from others, can provide insight into the ways migrants reproduce stratification in the transnational field. To examine emergent economic moralities, I will analyze daily exchanges of talk and food between caregivers and children through which appropriate means of giving, taking, and sharing are negotiated. I will set my investigation in Senegalese households in Paris, following family members back to Dakar over summer vacation to examine socialization in transnational movement. This study will contribute to anthropological literature on transnational migration by applying theory and methods from studies of language socialization to questions of how social values that guide economic practices are communicated and negotiated in everyday interactions in households.
Fattal, Alexander L., Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Susan Theidon
ALEXANDER L. FATTAL, then a student at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded a grant in April 2009 to aid research on 'Guerrilla Marketing: Information Warfare and the Demobilization of FARC Rebels,' supervised by Dr. Kimberly Theidon. This research, which builds on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Colombia and five months in Sweden, explores the counterinsurgency in Colombia through a detailed study of the Program for Humanitarian Attention to the Demobilized (PAHD) within the Colombian Ministry of Defense, the everyday lives of former insurgents, and the way the PAHD partners with an advertising firm to sell its program to current rebels and update the image of the Colombian armed forces. This dissertation argues that the assemblage of the individual demobilization policy in Colombia and its media dimensions seeks to radically rebrand the Colombian counterinsurgency as humanitarian, and elide its abysmal human rights record. At stake in the Colombian government's efforts is the very definition and future of demobilization as a peace-building policy, as well as a greater understanding of how war and capitalism intertwine in contemporary civil wars.
Posecznick, Alex, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Recruiting Through Open Doors: On the (Im-)Possibility of College Admission in America,' supervised by Dr. Herve Varenne
ALEX POSECZNICK, then a student at Columbia University, New York, New York, received funding in April 2008 to aid research on Recruiting through Open Doors: On the (Im-)Possibility of College Admission in America,' supervised by Dr. Herve Varenne. This project examined the ways that college policies, practices, and talk about college admission shapes the admission at a non-elite post-secondary institution. Although elite universities are clearly involved in the construction of meritocracy, this research examined how it is mediated through neoliberal bureaucracies at all levels of life in America. Having survived a series of enrollment 'crises' that led to the layoffs of over 100 staff, the college in which this research took place was instructive in the examination of enrollment trends in competitive landscapes. The grantee spent twelve months in participant observation in recruitment, open houses, interviewing, application reviews, marketing meetings, and event management at a small, non-elite, private college's Office of Admission, and drew upon archival and visual methods in the analysis of nearly 3500 pages of documents. The grantee interviewed great numbers of informants, including Admission staff, executives, Board members, faculty, Deans, program directors, and stakeholders about the many and various interpretations of the college, its history, and its current state. Ethnographic examination of an office of admission demonstrated the ways that massive and powerful bureaucracies, policies, and institutions hegemonically interpret, evaluate, and act upon persons in America, producing and reproducing measurable differences that reinforce neoliberal, meritocratic models of the individual. The research emphasized the complex and contested understandings of students and bureaucratic processes. As the students at the college in which this research took place were overwhelmingly people of color, this study further reveals how kinds of diversity were displayed in order to be meaningful to a bureaucracy and with what consequences.