Welton, Megan Lynn, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Mobility and Social Organization in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Isotopic Analysis of Remains from Ikiztepe,' supervised by Dr. Timothy P. Harrison
MEGAN LYNN WELTON, then a student at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, was granted funding in April 2008 to aid research on 'Mobility and Social Organization in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Isotopic Analysis of Remains from Ikiztepe,' supervised by Dr. Timothy P. Harrison. This research utilizes strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of human remains from a large Early Bronze Age cemetery at Ikiztepe in northern Turkey in combination with spatial and biodistance analysis and various dating techniques to identify potential immigrants to the site and to examine larger issues of residential mobility and social organization. Chronological issues were addressed through fluoride and AMS radiocarbon dating of the skeletal remains, creating an absolute and relative chronology for the burials. The results indicate that the cemetery dates a millennium earlier than previously supposed. Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses allowed the identification of individuals whose bone chemistry suggests they were possible long distance immigrants to the site, as well as suggesting the existence of a group of mobile individuals who may represent a transhumant segment of the Ikiztepe population. Immigrant individuals and nomadic or semi-nomadic segments of the population do not appear to have been distinguished in any observable way from their sedentary local counterparts, displaying similar burial types, grave goods and spatial locations. The results suggest that assumptions about funerary practices as important indicators of cultural identity and lineage affiliation may represent an over-simplification of complex patterns of interaction and integration among and within populations.
Peeples, Mathew Allen, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ - To aid research on 'Social Transformation and Regional Scales of Social Identity in the Cibola World (A.D. 1100-1325),' supervised by Dr. Keith William Kintigh
MATHEW ALLEN PEEPLES, then a student at Arizona State University, received funding in April 2009, to aid research on 'Social Transformation and Regional Scales of Social Identity in the Cibola World (A.D. 1100-1325),' supervised by Dr. Keith W. Kintigh. This research is focused on the relationships between social transformations and collective social identification at broad geographic and demographic scales. Using archaeological data from the Cibola region of the North American Southwest across the Pueblo III to Pueblo IV transition (ca. A.D. 1100-1325), the grantee explores changes in the process of social identification across a major period of demographic and social upheaval. This period was marked by a massive shift in population as the inhabitants of thousands of small hamlets aggregated into a small number of clustered villages and, eventually, into a few dozen nucleated towns. The research assesses the role of interaction and social identification in this transformation using insights from theoretical models developed by sociologists and political scientists focused on the development of social movements, and focuses on three kinds of evidence: data relating to 1) settlement and community organization; 2) direct social interaction; and 3) the active expression of social identities through material culture. Initial results suggest that the Pueblo III to Pueblo IV transition represented a major expansion of the scale at which social identification was expressed. Newly developed social groups cross-cut patterns of frequent interaction among the inhabitants of the region established prior to the transformation.
Binetti, Katie Marie, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Early Pliocene Hominin Paleoenvironments in the Tugen Hills, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Andrew Hill
KATIE M. BINETTI, then a student at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, received a grant in October 2006 to aid research on 'Early Pliocene Hominin Paleoenvironments in the Tugen Hills, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Andrew Hill. Most paleoenvironmental evidence associated with Ardipithecus ramidus fossils comes from just a few localities in Ethiopia and indicates a forest-dominated setting. This prompts suggestions that the earliest hominins were restricted to woodland environments. Testing this hypothesis requires paleoenvironmental reconstructions from additional Ardipithecus localities. The Tugen Hills succession in Kenya provides such an opportunity. A right mandible, identified as Ar. ramidus, was discovered in the Tugen Hills at Tabarin. The specimen and associated fauna date to 4.42 Ma. Thus, Tabarin, and two penecontemporaneous Tugen Hills localities, Sagatia and Moisionin, provided an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis that Ardipithecus inhabited a paleo-woodland habitat using faunal-based analyses. Field research focused on fossil recovery at Moisionin, as fossil collection at Tabarin and Sagatia had been previously completed. Fieldwork resulted in the collection of approximately 350 individual faunal specimens. Laboratory analyses, conducted at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, involved the collected fossil faunas from all three localities. Specimens were catalogued individually and assigned unique identification numbers. Additional information associated with each specimen included taxonomic/skeletal identifications and field contextual information, including stratigraphic position. Roughly 2000 specimens, from all three localities, were identified and analyzed in the lab. The final results of paleoenvironmental analyses using the collected data are pending.
D'Arcy, Michael Joseph, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Uncertain Adherence: Psychosis, Anti-Psychosis, and Medicated Subjectivity in the Republic of Ireland,' supervised by Dr. Stefania Pandolfo
Preliminary abstract: The majority of current anthropological research on psychopharmaceuticals focuses on the political economy of pharmaceutical production, prescription, and distribution. This research is invaluable, but it obscures the entanglement of the lived experience of psychotic mental illness with the social context of adherence. This project explores how the practice of antipsychotic adherence by psychiatric patients in Dublin, Ireland can be understood in relation to psychotic experience. I argue that adherence, or the extent to which a patient complies with a prescribed treatment plan, is troubled by the same ambiguities and ambivalences as psychotic subjectivity itself--characterized by delusions and hallucinations disrupting the relationship between the psychotic individual and their sociocultural milieu--and it is therefore problematic for the discipline of anthropology to engage solely with the 'logic' of psychopharmaceutical adherence, excluding the meaningful relationship that develops between patients and their medications. The place of madness and its relationship to curative substance within Irish myth and colonial history, as well as within the disciplinary history of medical and psychological anthropology, is well known. Privileging the ambiguity of this relationship is particularly important because of recent changes in Irish psychiatric care. The increasing complexity of community mental health in the aftermath of Ireland's psychiatric deinstitutionalization, as well as the massive influx of immigrants in the 1990s and early 2000s, have radically changed the social and institutional context of Irish mental health. Through the analytic lens of antipsychotic adherence, new understandings of psychotic subjectivity and its engagement with collective history take shape.
Kim, Ujin, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Moral Resonance: Honorific Speech among Kazakh Nomads in China,' supervised by Dr. Judith T. Irvine
Preliminary abstract: The honorific speech of Kazakh nomads I propose to study is of great anthropological interest because highly systematic honorific expressions are found in a presumably egalitarian nomadic society. Are the Kazakh nomads not very egalitarian after all? What kinds of asymmetric relations are expressed in Kazakh honorifics? What do these linguistic forms communicate besides social status? What motivates the Kazakh nomads to actively engage in the give and take of honorific speech? I hypothesize that Kazakh nomads use honorifics not only to acknowledge certain unequal social relations that may exist among them, but also to invoke moral stereotypes ideologically associated with their choice of linguistic forms, regardless of their social standing. This research explores the semiotic processes that link honorific speech to the local notions of moral personhood, proper conduct, and ideal social order.
Newman, Jessica Marie, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Abortion, Negotiation, and Activism in Morocco,' supervised by Dr. Marcia C. Inhorn
Preliminary abstract: Global health campaigns targeting reproductive and maternal health consider access to medical abortions to be intrinsically linked to lower maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Yet in contexts where abortion is illegal, public health projects targeting the reduction of 'unsafe abortion' have been unsuccessful. This project seeks to understand the ways that everyday actors draw on religious and human rights discourses to understand their bodies, their behaviors, and their rights. Specifically, this research will examine how the intersection of juridical practices that criminalize abortion, and human rights and global health frameworks structure women's access to abortions in Morocco. The Maliki school of Islam, to which Morocco belongs, disallows abortion after 40 days of gestation and Morocco's criminal code outlaws both abortion and premarital sexuality. Attempts to contest these laws therefore challenge religious and state authority, which are entwined in the Moroccan state apparatus. Despite proscriptions against abortion in Morocco, high rates of abortion bespeak the myriad ways in which women negotiate access to abortive care in cases of unplanned pregnancy. This project examines women's therapeutic itineraries in contexts of constraint, while questioning how normative medical, religious, and feminist discourses influence individuals' understandings of their own opinions about and experiences with abortion.
Aparicio, Juan R., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Beyond Human Rights and Humanitarian Interventions: Internally Displaced Persons, Autonomy and Collective Ethical Projects in Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar
JUAN RICARDO APARICIO, then a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'Beyond Human Rights and Humanitarian Interventions: Internally Displaced Persons, Autonomy and Collective Ethical Projects in Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar. This dissertation project explored the production and circulation of discourses, practices, and objects related to the problem of internal displacement along a network that connects international institutions based in Geneva or Washington, with the local initiatives that have been defined as 'collective ethical projects' in two regions in Colombia. The location of the fieldwork sites included the rural areas of the Urabá region, the rivers in the Pacific coastland and offices of national and international institutions in the capital Bogotá, among others. Regarding the rural locations, fieldwork devoted to analyze the complex strategies deployed by both collectives to defend their own ethical projects, and the manifold challenges they are still facing today. From particular enunciations made by participants using a rights-based language to the proliferation of white shirts and flags carried by international officers and activists, among many others, both of these projects are deeply entangled in networks of the human rights and humanitarian global assemblage. In fact, as this multi-sited ethnography has proven, the emergence of these collective ethical projects could only be explained by an analytic that is aware of the different actors, scales, changing strategies, larger contexts and specificities of each region.
Cartelli, Philip Aaron, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
Preliminary abstract: This project analyzes the transformation of an urban space, the J4 (a former boat pier), from a non-purposed common space to one housing two cultural institutions directed towards a largely middle-class public. The French Mediterranean city of Marseille has recently become home to the largest urban development project in southern Europe, Euroméditerranée. Within this context, the opening of new institutions on the J4 both symbolizes and actualizes interlinked processes of cultural revitalization and social control in a working-class port town. Beginning in 2013, a year when Marseille has assumed the title of European Capital of Culture, my dissertation research unravels competing exigencies of the J4's changing users and its newly imposed and institutionalized appropriate uses. My methodologies include interviews, mapping, archival research, and sustained observation, including through audio-visual recording. Drawing on previous work and theories of urban development, spatial practice and commoditization I consider the (re)production of urban space as a contemporary phenomenon predicated on distinct spatial uses and urban development discourse and practice. Specifically, I examine how the commoditization of urban space in cities like Marseille is linked to efforts to push working-class residents aside and re-convert public space for touristic purposes under the banner of 'culture.'
Jae, Gina, Columbia U., New York, NY - To aid research on 'Translating Experiments to Experience: Producing Transplant Practices for Sickle Cell Disease in the US and France,' supervised by Dr. Lesley Sharp
Preliminary abstract: This project examines how healthcare systems in two wealthy nations are making a risky, expensive, but potentially curative procedure available to children affected by sickle cell disease, a disabling genetic disorder common to minority and immigrant populations in the United States and France. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (also known as bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and stem cell transplantation) has been available to sickle cell patients in both countries for over two decades, only a few hundred cases have been documented in the medical literature. Over half of these have taken place in Europe, however, with the majority of them performed in France. Given that US insurers universally cover the high cost of this procedure for sickle cell disease, other factors need to be considered in addition to the cost of healthcare access to patients. This ethnography seeks to understand how productive understandings of experimental research, clinical knowledge, and patient and caregiver practices are being constituted by competing notions of citizenship, risk, medical authority, and bioethics in the routinization of transplant standards for sickle cell disease. That French and US healthcare environments share leadership in international sickle cell disease research and clinical care trends, but are nonetheless producing divergent practices, provides a rich site for comparative investigation.