Williams, Leanne Judith, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Moral Visions in Uncertain Times: How Urban Baptists in Zimbabwe Negotiate the Future in a Context of Change,' supervised by Dr. Rupert Stasch
Preliminary abstract: The project investigates how people's moral lives shape and are shaped by instances of major political and economic change. Responses to Zimbabwe's recent contested political elections indicate that the nation continues to experience the kind of persistent uncertainty that characterizes much of post-colonial sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the lack of certainty, urban Christians in the nation's capital city construct a vision of a plausible everyday future through engaging in moral debate. This project focuses on moral discussion in order to uncover what kinds of culturally informed morality emerge in post-colonial settings where people struggle to make connections between their actions in the present and future outcomes. I will explore how Hararean Baptists create and assess their actions in relation to a moral narrative that is informed by their religious commitments to where divine and human agency are located.In so doing, this proposed research utilizes anthropological approaches to the study of morality, particularly as it relates to temporality, to investigate the links between religious perspectives on time and human choices, and the kind of morality that emerge as significant for people in settings of major political, social and economic change.
Piel, Alex Kenneth, U. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA - To aid research on 'Localizing Long Calls: Applied Acoustics to Understand Savanna Chimpanzee Sociality in Ugalla, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. James J. Moore
ALEX K. PIEL, then a student at University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California, received funding in April 2008, to aid research on 'Localizing Long Calls: Applied Acoustics to Understand Savanna Chimpanzee Sociality in Ugalla, Tanzania,' supervised by Dr. James J. Moore. In traditional human societies, the functions of loud calls vary, ranging from inviting neighboring groups for rituals to threatening them with attack. Considerably less is known about the function of chimpanzee loud calls (pant hoot) with hypotheses suggesting these vocalizations coordinate dispersed parties. These calls are likely particularly important in chimpanzees that live in savanna habitats, where individuals may range more than ten times further than forest chimpanzees. To examine the role of loud calls in savanna chimpanzees, a custom designed acoustic localization system that provided streaming, real-time continuous data on chimpanzee caller locations -- across an area more than 25 sq-km -- was deployed in Ugalla, Tanzania. Hypotheses were tested on chimpanzee use of pant hoots to facilitate these reunions at nest sites and also whether nest site selection is influenced by the acoustic features that facilitate long distance communication. This acoustic surveillance system is the first known of its type for the study of wild primates, allowing researchers to monitor areas otherwise logistically difficult to survey, and providing information on chimpanzee presence in multiple geographic areas simultaneously. Analysis and localization of chimpanzee loud calls will inform on the ecological context and function of this behaviour in unhabituated chimpanzees living in savanna woodland.
Binetti, Katie Marie, Yale U., New Haven, CT - To aid research on 'Early Pliocene Hominin Paleoenvironments in the Tugen Hills, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Andrew Hill
KATIE M. BINETTI, then a student at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, received a grant in October 2006 to aid research on 'Early Pliocene Hominin Paleoenvironments in the Tugen Hills, Kenya,' supervised by Dr. Andrew Hill. Most paleoenvironmental evidence associated with Ardipithecus ramidus fossils comes from just a few localities in Ethiopia and indicates a forest-dominated setting. This prompts suggestions that the earliest hominins were restricted to woodland environments. Testing this hypothesis requires paleoenvironmental reconstructions from additional Ardipithecus localities. The Tugen Hills succession in Kenya provides such an opportunity. A right mandible, identified as Ar. ramidus, was discovered in the Tugen Hills at Tabarin. The specimen and associated fauna date to 4.42 Ma. Thus, Tabarin, and two penecontemporaneous Tugen Hills localities, Sagatia and Moisionin, provided an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis that Ardipithecus inhabited a paleo-woodland habitat using faunal-based analyses. Field research focused on fossil recovery at Moisionin, as fossil collection at Tabarin and Sagatia had been previously completed. Fieldwork resulted in the collection of approximately 350 individual faunal specimens. Laboratory analyses, conducted at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi, involved the collected fossil faunas from all three localities. Specimens were catalogued individually and assigned unique identification numbers. Additional information associated with each specimen included taxonomic/skeletal identifications and field contextual information, including stratigraphic position. Roughly 2000 specimens, from all three localities, were identified and analyzed in the lab. The final results of paleoenvironmental analyses using the collected data are pending.
D'Arcy, Michael Joseph, U. of California, Berkeley, CA - To aid research on 'Uncertain Adherence: Psychosis, Anti-Psychosis, and Medicated Subjectivity in the Republic of Ireland,' supervised by Dr. Stefania Pandolfo
Preliminary abstract: The majority of current anthropological research on psychopharmaceuticals focuses on the political economy of pharmaceutical production, prescription, and distribution. This research is invaluable, but it obscures the entanglement of the lived experience of psychotic mental illness with the social context of adherence. This project explores how the practice of antipsychotic adherence by psychiatric patients in Dublin, Ireland can be understood in relation to psychotic experience. I argue that adherence, or the extent to which a patient complies with a prescribed treatment plan, is troubled by the same ambiguities and ambivalences as psychotic subjectivity itself--characterized by delusions and hallucinations disrupting the relationship between the psychotic individual and their sociocultural milieu--and it is therefore problematic for the discipline of anthropology to engage solely with the 'logic' of psychopharmaceutical adherence, excluding the meaningful relationship that develops between patients and their medications. The place of madness and its relationship to curative substance within Irish myth and colonial history, as well as within the disciplinary history of medical and psychological anthropology, is well known. Privileging the ambiguity of this relationship is particularly important because of recent changes in Irish psychiatric care. The increasing complexity of community mental health in the aftermath of Ireland's psychiatric deinstitutionalization, as well as the massive influx of immigrants in the 1990s and early 2000s, have radically changed the social and institutional context of Irish mental health. Through the analytic lens of antipsychotic adherence, new understandings of psychotic subjectivity and its engagement with collective history take shape.
Valles, Dario, Northwestern U., Evanston, IL - To aid research on 'Provedoras Unidas: Latina Migrant Family Child Care Providers Negotiating Poverty, Power & Organized Labor in Neoliberal Los Angeles,' supervised by Dr. Micaela di Leonardo
Preliminary abstract: The growth of a feminized global service sector, intersecting with the move from welfare to 'workfare' in the U.S., has engendered a 'child care crisis' where demand for care has skyrocketed while costs have outpaced rents in most states. In response, family child care (FCC) has become one of the fastest growing occupations in the U.S., with an estimated 2.3 million workers and many more working informally, providing alternatives to institutionalized daycare hours, cost and access. Like the low-income women they serve, U.S. FCC providers are predominantly Latina and black women; in Los Angeles, they are primarily recent migrants from Mexico and Central America. I propose to study Latina migrant family child care providers in Los Angeles and the ways in which they negotiate the contradictions among market demands for 'flexible' and cheap care, increased regulatory surveillance by government and racialized and gendered ideas of 'good motherhood' and 'proper families'. Joining a growing trend across the U.S., family child care workers in California have attempted to gain legal recognition as a union, yet face opposition from left- and right- leaning legislators alike. I will examine family child care union organizing alongside providers' daily experiences to understand the historical political-economic factors and racialized and gendered structures shaping Latina migrant women's participation in family child care. At the same time, I hope to uncover how Latina family child care providers ï¿½' in their everyday practices and collective action ï¿½' create new spaces of 'conviviality,' where migrant groups and marginalized workers craft new forms of political and social life in urban landscapes reconfigured by transnational flows and neoliberal globalization
O'Neill, Matthew C., Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD - To aid research on 'Linking Laboratory and Field Studies of Primate Energetics,' supervised by Dr. Christopher B. Ruff
O'Neill, Matthew C. 2012. Gait Specific Metabolic Costs and Preferred Speeds in Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta), with Implications for the Scaling of Locomotor Costs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149(3):356-364.
Landa Ruiloba, Pablo, Princeton U., Princeton, NJ - To aid research on 'Modern Architecture, Citizenship and Solidarity in Mexico City's Santa Fe Public Housing Unit,' supervised by Dr. James Alexander Boon
PABLO LANDA RUILOBA, then a student at Princeton, University, Princeton, New Jersey, received funding in October 2011 to aid research on 'Modern Architecture, Citizenship and Solidarity in Mexico City's Santa Fe Public Housing Unit,' supervised by Dr. James A. Boon. The Santa Fe Housing Unit is a model modernist complex built in Mexico City by the country's Social Security Institute for employees of public and private companies. Santa Fe, dedicated in 1957, has 2200 houses and apartments and government institutions, including schools and a health clinic. The complex was privatized in the 1980s, heralding profound transformations in Mexico's economy and politics. As a site that synthesizes mid-20th century state and nation-building policies and their subsequent history, Santa Fe offers a privileged vantage to evaluate the relations among policy, architecture, and social dynamics, and to explore their recent history in Mexico. Life in the complex shows that -- in contrast to what modernist planners expected and many 'professionals of space' in Mexico still expect --meanings inscribed through 'everyday practices' and historical processes in spaces and built forms mediate these relations. People are not simply shaped by their environment. Furthermore, analysis of Santa Fe demonstrates that distinctions between public and private, as relational categories, shift as space is occupied and represented by different publics. Discussions over the uses and ownership of space are sites where these publics are formed and where they negotiate relations to others and to state authorities.
Aparicio, Juan R., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC - To aid research on 'Beyond Human Rights and Humanitarian Interventions: Internally Displaced Persons, Autonomy and Collective Ethical Projects in Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar
JUAN RICARDO APARICIO, then a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, was awarded a grant in May 2007 to aid research on 'Beyond Human Rights and Humanitarian Interventions: Internally Displaced Persons, Autonomy and Collective Ethical Projects in Colombia,' supervised by Dr. Arturo Escobar. This dissertation project explored the production and circulation of discourses, practices, and objects related to the problem of internal displacement along a network that connects international institutions based in Geneva or Washington, with the local initiatives that have been defined as 'collective ethical projects' in two regions in Colombia. The location of the fieldwork sites included the rural areas of the Urabá region, the rivers in the Pacific coastland and offices of national and international institutions in the capital Bogotá, among others. Regarding the rural locations, fieldwork devoted to analyze the complex strategies deployed by both collectives to defend their own ethical projects, and the manifold challenges they are still facing today. From particular enunciations made by participants using a rights-based language to the proliferation of white shirts and flags carried by international officers and activists, among many others, both of these projects are deeply entangled in networks of the human rights and humanitarian global assemblage. In fact, as this multi-sited ethnography has proven, the emergence of these collective ethical projects could only be explained by an analytic that is aware of the different actors, scales, changing strategies, larger contexts and specificities of each region.
Cartelli, Philip Aaron, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA - To aid research on 'Marseille-J4: The (Re)production of Space in a French Mediterranean Port City,' supervised by Dr. Mary Steedly
Preliminary abstract: This project analyzes the transformation of an urban space, the J4 (a former boat pier), from a non-purposed common space to one housing two cultural institutions directed towards a largely middle-class public. The French Mediterranean city of Marseille has recently become home to the largest urban development project in southern Europe, Euroméditerranée. Within this context, the opening of new institutions on the J4 both symbolizes and actualizes interlinked processes of cultural revitalization and social control in a working-class port town. Beginning in 2013, a year when Marseille has assumed the title of European Capital of Culture, my dissertation research unravels competing exigencies of the J4's changing users and its newly imposed and institutionalized appropriate uses. My methodologies include interviews, mapping, archival research, and sustained observation, including through audio-visual recording. Drawing on previous work and theories of urban development, spatial practice and commoditization I consider the (re)production of urban space as a contemporary phenomenon predicated on distinct spatial uses and urban development discourse and practice. Specifically, I examine how the commoditization of urban space in cities like Marseille is linked to efforts to push working-class residents aside and re-convert public space for touristic purposes under the banner of 'culture.'
Strava, Cristiana, U. of London, London, UK - To aid research on 'At Home with Modernity: Exploring Place-Making in a Casablanca Slum,' supervised by Dr. Trevor Marchand
Preliminary abstract: This project will examine the plurality of social, political, economic, sensorial and technological forces that shape, constrain and foster a particular way of 'being in the world' in Casablanca's oldest slum. Infamous as the birthplace of the suicide bombers who committed the 2003 and 2005 bomb attacks on the city, Hay Mohammadi was the site of French experimentation with modernist housing in the early 1950s and hailed as the birthplace of a culturally specific 'vernacular modernism', based on ethnological studies of the existing shantytown. While the housing project has received its share of attention from architectural historians, the inhabitants of Hay Mohammadi are largely missing from the picture. By focusing on everyday life in two of the emblematic housing projects designed by the French still in existence today, this project will investigate the mechanisms, tactics and dwelling practices by which people construct, ground and attach meaning to a contested urban space. Using a methodological approach that integrates participant observation with an array of audio-visual and map-making methods, this study will document the agency of the inhabitants as legitimate 'bricoleurs' of counter spaces of living. The main questions guiding my investigation are: To what extent is a meaningful experience of the everyday available to those struggling at the margins and what can be learned from moments of meaninglessness? How do various forms of power, both dominant and resilient, become represented through spatial practices in Hay Mohammadi? This research project will contribute to literatures in urban anthropology or space and place, as well as the anthropology of experience.