Klaus, Haagen Dietrich

Grant Type: 
Post-Ph.D. Research Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Utah Valley University
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 3, 2010
Project Title: 
Klaus, Dr. Haagen Dietrich, Utah Valley U., Orem, UT - To aid research on 'Escaping Conquest: Human Biology, Ethnogenesis, and Indigenous Engagement with Colonialism in Eten, Peru'

DR. HAAGEN D. KLAUS, Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Escaping Conquest: Human Biology, Ethnogenesis, and Indigenous Engagement with Colonialsim in Eten, Peru.' This project completed the second phase of a multi-decade study of the post-contact Central Andes at the ruins of Eten, Lambayeque, Peru (AD 1532-1760). This work tested three linked hypotheses through an innovative integration of regional mortuary patterns, bioarchaeology, and archaeology. It was hypothesized that: 1) due to a unique microenvironment, the local Muchik population of Eten buffered against post-contact morbidity and health stress; 2) hybrid Andean-Iberian burial patterns emerged through colonial Muchik ethnogenesis and identity conservation; and 3) related transformations of pre-contact Muchik identity politics resulted in native biological hybridization. The results show the post-contact native Muchik Eten population bore minimal health stress as ecological and economic variables played key roles (although at least six Early Colonial mass graves were documented indicating episodic epidemic disease). Burial rituals showed little to no evidence of cultural hybridization and were Catholic in style. Micro-evolutionary signatures of ethnogenesis were detected however in variation of inherited tooth size, to indicate regional biological hybridization indeed occurred as pre-Hispanic mating networks disintegrated in tandem with sociopolitical breakdown. As a result, Hypotheses 1 and 3 were accepted, and Hypothesis 2 rejected. This work represents a multidimensional and regional portrait of an indigenous community that avoided some of the most detrimental biological outcomes of contact, but found itself enmeshed in a radically new cultural reality that emerged from unique entanglements with the post-contact adaptive transition in South America.

Publication credit:

Klaus, Haagen, and Connie M. Ericksen. 2013. Paleopathology of an Ovarian Teratoma: Description and Diagnosis of an Exotic Abdominal Bone and Tooth Mass in a Historic Peruvian Burial. International Journal of Paleopathology. Published online.

Klaus, Haagen D., and Elizabeth E. Byrnes. 2013. Cranial lesions and maxillofacial asymmetry in an archaeological skeleton from Peru: A paleopathological case of possible trauma-induced epidermal inclusion cysts. Journal of Cranio-Maxillary Diseases 2(1):46-53.

Klaus, Haagen. 2012. Bioarchaeology of Structural Violence: Theoretical Model and Case Study. In 'The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. and V. Perez, eds. University of Florida Press: Gainesville.

Grant Year: 
2010
Award Amount: 
$7,919

Munoz, Lizette Alda

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Pittsburgh, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
April 21, 2014
Project Title: 
Munoz, Lizette Alda, U. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - To aid research on 'Cuisine and the Conquest: Contrasting Two 16th Century Native Populations of the Viceroyalty of Peru,' supervised by Dr. Marc Bermann

Preliminary abstract: Foodways are intertwined with dynamics of ethnic identity, social interaction, gender, status expression, and economic standing. Therefore, subsistence and cuisine can offer a valuable window on times of transformation, such as those of colonial periods, when people are faced with new social and economic settings. By contrasting indigenous foodways at two Early Colonial (c. AD 1540 -- 1570) sites in the Viceroyalty of Peru, I explore variability in how the political, economic, and religious processes set in motion by the Spanish arrival intersected with native practices of food procurement, preparation, and consumption. The sites of Malata, Peru, and Porco, Bolivia, provide a chronologically controlled window on two populations - a doctrina village, and a community of industrial workers, respectively - that differ in the degree to which its native inhabitants were integrated into a global economic system. Occupations to be studied at each site date to a period about which relatively little is known from either archaeological or written sources. My research is a comprehensive, comparative archaeobotanical study of previously excavated samples from two sites, which offers a 'grass roots' native perspective that is currently lacking from scholarship concerning identity formation in early colonial Latin America as a whole.

Grant Year: 
2014
Award Amount: 
$20,000

Stovel, Emily Marie

Grant Type: 
Conference & Workshop Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Ripon College
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
March 1, 2013
Project Title: 
Stovel, Dr. Emily, Ripon College, Ripon, WI - To aid 'Sigamos Interactuando': International Workshop on Central Andean Ceramic Knowledge,' 2013, Argentina, in collaboration with Dr. Beatriz Cremonte

Preliminary abstract: We will hold a multinational collaborative workshop on the current understanding of ceramic styles and distribution in the south-central Andes (southern Bolivia, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina) to bolster and test current models of regional interaction, integration, and identity. This effort responds to the recent diversification of methods used in ceramics research and the regional isolation of this knowledge which prevents a coordinated and comprehensive study of ceramic production, use, and trade in multiple contexts. This conversation will involve scholars from the three relevant countries in addition to a small number of international specialists to collaborate on communicating to neighbors and colleagues in other fields the temporal and spatial distributions of ceramics, documenting rather than smoothing over debates. A resulting manuscript will serve as a manual of ceramic variation in the region, not reifying categories, but emphasizing similarities and differences among various lines of evidence: chemistry, mineralogy, technology, decoration, and context.

Grant Year: 
2013
Award Amount: 
$20,000

Bardolph, Dana Nicole

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
California, Santa Barbara, U. of
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 10, 2013
Project Title: 
Bardolph, Dana Nicole, U. of California, Santa Barbara, CA - To aid research on 'Exploring Migration, Identities, and Inequalities through Foodways in the Moche Valley of North Coastal Peru,' supervised by Dr. Amber VanDerwarker

Preliminary abstract: The goal of this project is to examine the relationships between food, identity, and social inequality through a paleoethnobotanical perspective. Specifically, this project seeks to reconstruct household culinary practices in order to address the roles that food played in the migrant experience of highlanders that settled in a traditionally coastal river valley just prior to the consolidation of the Southern Moche polity of north coastal Peru. Archaeologists have long recognized that highland-coastal interaction resulted in new forms of sociopolitical organization that shaped the development of the Southern Moche polity, one of the largest and most complex prehistoric political systems to have developed in the New World; however, the historical details of highland colonization are not well understood. The proposed project will examine household foodways during the Gallinazo/Early Moche phases (A.D. 1-300) through a synchronic analysis of paleoethnobotanical data from recent large-scale excavations of highland and coastal residential compounds in the middle Moche Valley. Macrobotanical data, along with starch/phytolith and ceramic residue analyses, will be used to reconstruct the resources targeted by highland migrants; the staging of foodways within a highland colony; and the ways in which migrant highland agricultural strategies differed from those of local coastal groups. Through detailed contextual analysis at the microscale, this project aims to evaluate the ways in which labor related to the production, processing, and consumption of foodstuffs may have reinforced gender and status-based inequalities in the tumultuous sociopolitical environment of the pre-state Moche Valley.

Grant Year: 
2013
Award Amount: 
$19,981

DeMarrais, Elizabeth

Grant Type: 
Post-Ph.D. Research Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Cambridge, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
April 13, 2004
Project Title: 
DeMarrais, Dr. Elizabeth, U. of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom - To aid research on 'Power and Social Practice: Community Development in the Calchaqui Valley, Argentina (AD950-1450)

DR. ELIZABETH DEMARRAIS, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, received funding in April 2004 to aid research on 'Power and Social Practice: Community Development in the Calchaqui Valley, Argentina (AD950-1450).' This archaeological research project investigated the nature of power relations, leadership, and ritual practices in one community in the south Andes during the period before the Inka conquest. In the mountainous, semi-arid Calchaqui Valley of northwest Argentina, pre-Hispanic inhabitants built and occupied agglutinated residential compounds in sites near irrigated agricultural lands. Infants were buried in funerary urns, decorated with elaborate anthropomorphic and zoomorphic designs, under the floors of the residences. Archaeological excavations at the community of Borgatta revealed that ritual activities involving burial of infants were important focal activities for members of a household. Surprisingly, however, little evidence was recovered for political activities integrating larger numbers of people. Material evidence for high-status individuals was also limited in scope. Despite the large size of the settlement, the household, or patio group, seems to have remained the primary setting for ritual practice. More generally, the findings challenge assumptions that hierarchy and 'top-down' forms of leadership will necessarily develop as communities grow in size or complexity. As a consequence, alternatives to hierarchy, such as the notion of heterarchy -- in which power may be decentralized, flexible, or shared -- hold significant explanatory potentials that anthropologists and archaeologists are well-positioned to explore.

Publication Credit:

DeMarrais, Elizabeth. 2005. The Materialization of Culture,' pp. 11-22, in Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World (E. DeMarrais, C. Gosden, and C. Renfrew, eds.),McDonald Institute Monographs.

Grant Year: 
2004
Award Amount: 
$19,960

Klaus, Haagen Dietrich

Grant Type: 
Post-Ph.D. Research Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Utah Valley University
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 4, 2009
Project Title: 
Klaus, Dr. Haagen Dietrich, Utah Valley U., Orem, UT - To aid research on 'The Andean Encounter in Eten: Postcontact Biological Variation, Ethnogenesis, and Microevolution in Colonial Peru'

DR. HAAGEN D. KLAUS, Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah, received funding in May 2010 to aid research on 'Escaping Conquest: Human Biology, Ethnogenesis, and Indigenous Engagement with Colonialsim in Eten, Peru.' This project completed the second phase of a multi-decade study of the post-contact Central Andes at the ruins of Eten, Lambayeque, Peru (AD 1532-1760). This work tested three linked hypotheses through an innovative integration of regional mortuary patterns, bioarchaeology, and archaeology. It was hypothesized that: 1) due to a unique microenvironment, the local Muchik population of Eten buffered against post-contact morbidity and health stress; 2) hybrid Andean-Iberian burial patterns emerged through colonial Muchik ethnogenesis and identity conservation; and 3) related transformations of pre-contact Muchik identity politics resulted in native biological hybridization. The results show the post-contact native Muchik Eten population bore minimal health stress as ecological and economic variables played key roles (although at least six Early Colonial mass graves were documented indicating episodic epidemic disease). Burial rituals showed little to no evidence of cultural hybridization and were Catholic in style. Micro-evolutionary signatures of ethnogenesis were detected however in variation of inherited tooth size, to indicate regional biological hybridization indeed occurred as pre-Hispanic mating networks disintegrated in tandem with sociopolitical breakdown. As a result, Hypotheses 1 and 3 were accepted, and Hypothesis 2 rejected. This work represents a multidimensional and regional portrait of an indigenous community that avoided some of the most detrimental biological outcomes of contact, but found itself enmeshed in a radically new cultural reality that emerged from unique entanglements with the post-contact adaptive transition in South America.

Publication Credit:

Klaus, Haagen D., and Manuel E. Tam. 2010. Oral Health and Postcontact adaptive transition: A Contextual Reconstruction of Diet in Mórrope, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141(4):594-609.

Klaus, Haagen D., et al. 2010. Tuberculosis on the north coast of Peru: skeletal and molecular paleopathology of late pre-Hispanic and postcontact mycobacterial disease. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2587-2597.

Grant Year: 
2009
Award Amount: 
$18,255

Norman, Scotti Michelle

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Vanderbilt U.
Status: 
Active Grant
Approve Date: 
October 14, 2014
Project Title: 
Norman, Scotti Michelle, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN - To aid research on 'Understanding Cultural Transformation Through Revitalization: Taki Onqoy and Early Spanish Rule (Chicha-Soras Valley, Peru),' supervised by Dr. Steven A. Wernke

Preliminary abstract: This project undertakes the first archaeological investigation of Taki Onqoy (Quechua: 'Dancing Sickness'), an Andean revitalization cult in the 1560s that preached the rejection of Spanish practices and the return of the reign of Andean huacas (landscape deities) (Albornoz 1990 [1584]). Specifically, it maps, excavates, and analyzes materials from Iglesiachayoq (Chicha), an Inka- to Early Colonial-era settlement located in the Chicha-Soras Valley (Ayacucho, Peru) whose inhabitants were central figures in this movement. Using a combination of spatial analysis and excavation, the anthropological and historical question addressed by this research asks if Taki Onqoy challenged budding Spanish colonial authority--despite its covert nature--in the 1560s by promoting behaviors which were anti-Catholic during the early years of Spanish colonial rule in Peru (Early Colonial Period AD 1532-1581). Through analysis of the material and spatial practices of Taki Onqoy, this project contributes to longstanding debates in the extensive document-based literature on the topic (Cock and Doyle 1979; Duviols 1971; Estenssoro 1992; Gose 2008; Guibovich 1990; MacCormack 1988; Millones 1990; Mumford 1998; Pease 1973; Ramos 1992; Stern 1982). More broadly, my project considers how cultural revitalization movements articulate autochthonous and foreign practices to address the dislocations and exploitations of the colonial condition.

Grant Year: 
2014
Award Amount: 
$18,650

Suarez, Rafael

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
La Plata, National U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 7, 2008
Project Title: 
Suarez, Rafael, U. of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina - To aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape During Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti

RAFAEL SUAREZ, then a student at University of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, received funding in May 2008 to aid research on 'Paleoindian Adaptations at the Subtropical Landscape during Pleistocene Holocene Transition in Uruguay,' supervised by Dr. Laura L. Miotti. The investigation of the Pay Paso 1 site allowed researchers to generate a chronological and stratigraphic base for a sequence of human occupations of late Pleistocene and early Holocene in northwest Uruguay. Two new designs of projectile points for the Paleoindian period have been discovered at the archaeological excavations in locality 1 of Pay Paso site. The paleo-vegetation record indicates dry climatic conditions shortly before 10,930 yr 14C BP. The greatest paleo-environmental change is observed when Amarathus is replaced by a varied vegetal community that includes subtropical and tropical trees, and plants adapted to humid soils and to highly humid conditions (such as the ferns and moss). The investigation shows the expansion of the subtropical forest, associated to an increase in temperature, humidity and rainfall at the mouth of the Cuareim River between 10,205-10,100 yr 14C BP. Five species of fauna have been identified -- the only fauna collection recovered in an archaeological site for the Paleoindian period in Uruguay. Two identified species correspond to late Pleistocene mammals - giant armadillo (Glyptodon sp.) and American horse (Equus sp.) -- and three correspond to records of present fauna: Boga fish (Leporinus sp.), otter (Myocastor sp.) and Rhea (Rhea Americana). The fauna recovered in the earliest cultural components present a relatively high variety of class with records of bird, mammal and fish. Stratigraphic association in context between Equus sp. (American Horse), a young individual Glyptodon sp. (Giant Armadillo) and archaeological material that includes Pay Paso points in the cultural component dated during the early Holocene, which indicates the simultaneous coexistence of two surviving species of Pleistocene fauna with humans at the Northwest of Uruguay ca. 9,500 yr 14C BP.

Grant Year: 
2008
Award Amount: 
$24,690

Belisle, Veronique

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
May 4, 2007
Project Title: 
Belisle, Veronique, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI - To aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus

VERONIQUE BELISLE, then a student at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, received funding in May 2007 to aid research on 'Wari Imperial Expansion and Household Change in Cusco, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Joyce Marcus. From AD 600 to 1000 (a period called the Middle Horizon), the Wari empire started to expand out of its homeland in the highlands of Peru. The Wari began to establish regional administrative centers to control the areas it conquered. In the Cusco region the Wari built two large settlements and, based on archaeological evidence from these sites, scholars believe that the Wari empire came to control the Cusco area. Work at the two largest Wari settlements was important but could not provide any information on the extent to which the Wari affected Cusco's local population. To address this gap in our knowledge, the archaeological site of Ak'awillay was selected and some 233 square meters were excavated there. At Ak'awillay both pre-Wari and Wari-period households were excavated to assess the nature of any residential changes that occurred as a result of the Wari presence in the Cusco area. In addition to the excavation of residential units, a large public building, probably used for ceremonial gatherings, was also excavated. In sum, funds from the Wenner-Gren Foundation were used to excavate Ak'awillay to study household organization before and after the Wari expanded into the Cusco region.

Grant Year: 
2007
Award Amount: 
$19,580

Duke, Guy Stephen

Grant Type: 
Dissertation Fieldwork Grant
Insitutional Affiliation: 
Toronto, U. of
Status: 
Completed Grant
Approve Date: 
April 8, 2013
Project Title: 
Duke, Guy Stephen, U. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada - To aid research on 'Consuming Identities: Culinary Practice in the Late Moche Jequetepeque Valley, Peru,' supervised by Dr. Edward Rueben Swenson

Preliminary abstract: More than just a means of subsistence, food and its accoutrements are integral to both the practices of everyday life and the spectacles of public ritual events. The archaeological study of culinary practices, including the preparation, serving, consumption, and disposal of food, provides an excellent point of entry to investigate everything from status and ethnicity to group and individual identity. Archaeologists are in a unique position to interpret the material remains of food production and consumption (e.g. cooking/storage vessels, plant/animal remains, and food processing/preparation implements) in everyday domestic life and larger political-economic dependencies in order to investigate processes of identity formation and maintenance. This project will explore whether, and what, interconnections exist between identity and culinary practice through the examination of food production and consumption at two sites in the politically unstable Jequetepeque Valley of Peru during the Late Moche Period (AD 600-850). The sites targeted for investigation include the large ceremonial centre of Huaca Colorada and a smaller rural site with ceremonial components (JE-335). My research design is geared to shed light on the cultural politics of food preparation and consumption in order to explore how, and if, the preparation and consumption of food created and maintained social distinctions within the specific context of sociopolitical and environmental transformations distinguishing the Late Moche Period.

Grant Year: 
2013
Award Amount: 
$16,901
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